酷兔英语



_For private circulation only_

DRAFT

Of A

Plan for Beginning

ANIMAL SANCTUARIES

In

LABRADOR

BY

LT.-COLONEL WILLIAM WOOD

(_to be submitted to the Fourth Annual Meeting of the Conservation

Commission of the Dominion of Canada in 1913._)

I. RECAPITULATION.

The original address on _Animal Sanctuaries in Labrador_ was published

in the spring of 1911. The _Supplement_ was published in the summer of

1912. The present _Plan_, or _Second Supplement_, is now being submitted

for consideration to the Fourth Annual Meeting of the Commission of

Conservation at the beginning of 1913.

These papers are published for free distribution among those who are

interested in the preservation of wild life. They are to be obtained on

application to _The Secretary, Commission of Conservation, Ottawa,

Canada_. But both the _Address_ and _Supplement_ are almost out of

print.

Communications on the subject itself should be addressed direct to

me:--_Colonel Wood, Quebec, Canada._

* * * * *

I gladly take this opportunity of thanking the many experts whose kind

help has given my papers whatever real value they possess. Some of these

experts have never been called so in their lives, and will be greatly

astonished to find that they are called so now. But when I know they are

the thing, why should I hesitate about the name? In any proper meaning

of the word there are several first-class "experts" among my friends who

go fishing, sealing, whaling, hunting, trapping, "furring" or guiding

for their livelihood. And I hereby most gratefullyacknowledge all I

have learnt during many a pleasant day with them, afloat and ashore. The

other kind of experts, those who are called so by the world at large,

have been quite as generous with their information and advice. In fact,

they have been so very generous that perhaps I should call myself the

editor, rather than the author, of the _Supplement_, as more than half

of it is occupied by extracts from their letters concerning the

_Address_.

It might be as well to restate the argument of this _Address_ in the

fewest possible words.

An eagerly exploiting people in an easily exploited country, we are only

too apt to live on the capital of all our natural resources. We are also

in the habit of developing one thing at the expense of everything else

connected with it. The value of these other things often remains

unrecognised till too late. For instance, reckless railways burn forests

which ensure a constant flow of water for irrigation, navigation, power

plant, and fish, besides providing wood for timber and shelter for bird

and beast. The presence of a construction gang generally means the

needless extermination of every animal in the neighbourhood. The

presence of mills means the needlessabsence of fish. And the presence

of ill-governed cities means the needless and deadly pollution of water

that never was meant for a sewer. The idea is the same in each

disgraceful case. It is, simply, to snatchwhatever is most coveted for

the moment, with least trouble to one's self, and at no matter what

expense to Nature and the future of man. The cant phrase is only too

well known--"Lots more where that came from". Exploitation is destroying

now what civilisation will long to restore hereafter. This is lamentably

true about material things. It is truer still about the higher than

material things. And it is truest of all about both the material and

higher values of wild life, which we administer as if we were the final

spendthrift heirs and not trustees.

Animal sanctuaries are places where man is passive and the rest of

Nature active. A sanctuary is the same thing to wild life as a spring is

to a river. In itself a sanctuary is a natural "zoo". But it is much

more than a "zoo". It can only contain a certain number of animals. Its

surplus must overflow to stock surrounding areas. And it constitutes a

refuge for all species whose lines of migration pass through it. So its

value in the preservation of desirable wild life is not to be denied. Of

course, sanctuaries occasionally develope troubles of their own; for if

man interferes with the balance of nature in one way he must be prepared

to interfere in others. But all experience shows that an easily worked

system will ensure a _maximum_ of gain and a _minimum_ of loss.

Up till quite recently Nature had her own animal sanctuaries in vast and

sparsely settled lands like Labrador. But now she has none. There is no

place left where wild life is safe from men who use all the modern means

of destruction without being bound by any of the modern means of

conservation. And this is nowhere truer than in Labrador, though the

area of the whole peninsula is equal to eleven Englands, while, even at

the busiest season along the coast, there is not one person to more than

every ten square miles. Since the white man went there at least

three-quarters of the forests have been burnt, and sometimes the soil

burnt too. Wild life of all kinds has been growing rapidly less. The

walrus is receding further and further north. Seals are diminishing.

Whales are beginning to disappear. Fur-bearing animals can hardly hold

their own much longer in face of the ever increasing demand for their

pelts and the more systematicinvasion of their range. The opening up of

the country in the north will mean the extinction of the great migrating

herd of barren-ground caribou, unless protection is enforced. The coast

birds are going fast. Some very old men can still remember the great

auk, which is now as extinct as the dodo. Elderly men have eaten the

Labrador duck, which has not been seen alive for thirty years. And young

men will certainly see the end of the Hudsonian and Eskimo curlews very

soon, under present conditions. The days of commercial "egging" on a

large scale are over, because eggs of the final lay were taken like the

rest, and the whole bird life was depleted below paying quantities. But

"egging" still goes on in other ways, especially at the hands of

Newfoundlanders, who are wantonly wasteful in their methods, unlike the

coast people, who only take what the birds will replace. The

Newfoundlanders and other strangers gather all the eggs they see, put

them into water, and throw away every one that floats. Thus many more

bird lives are destroyed than eggs are eaten or sold, because schooners

appear towards the end of the regular laying season, when most of the

eggs are about to hatch out--and these are the ones that float. But even

greater destruction is done when a schooner stays several days in the

same place. For then the crew go round, first smashing every egg they

see, and afterwards gathering every egg they see, because they know the

few they find the second time must have been newly laid.

Many details were given of other forms of destruction, and some details

of the revolting cruelties practised there, as in every other place

where wild life is grossly abused instead of being sanely used. All

classes of legitimate human interest were dealt with in turn; and it

was shown that the present system--or want of system--was bad for each

one: bad for such wild life as must still be used for necessary food,

bad for every kind of business in the products of wild life, bad for the

future of sport, bad for the pursuits of science, and bad for the

prospects of wild "zoos". The _Address_ ended with a plea for

conservation, and pointed out that the only class of people who could

possibly be benefitted under present conditions were those who were

ready to destroy both the capital and interest of any natural resources

for the sake of snatching a big and immediate, but really criminal,

profit.

The _Address_ was sent out for review to several hundreds of general and

specialist newspapers, and, thanks to the expert help so freely given

me, ran the gauntlet of the press without finding one dissentient voice

against it. Copies were also sent to every local expert known, as well

as to those experts in the world outside who were the most likely to be

interested. Three classes of invaluableexpert opinion were thus

obtained for the _Supplement_. The first class may be called experts on

Labrador; the second, experts on wild life in general; and the third,

experts on the public aspects of the question. All three were entirely in

favour of general conservation for the whole of Labrador and the

immediate establishment of special sanctuaries, as recommended in the

_Address_.

Among the experts on Labrador were the following:--DR BELL, late head of

the Geological Survey of Canada, who has made seven expeditions into

Labrador and who has always paid particular attention to the mammals; DR

CLARKE, Director of Science Education in the State of New York, who has

spent twelve summers studying the natural history of the Gulf; MR.

COMEAU, a past master, of fifty years experience as a professional

hunter, guide, inspector and salmon river warden on the North Shore; DR

GRENFELL, whose intimateacquaintance with the Atlantic Labrador is

universally recognised; DR HARE, whose position on the Canadian Labrador

corresponds to that of Dr Grenfell on the Atlantic; DR TOWNSHEND, author

of the standard work on _The Birds of Labrador_; and COMMANDER WAKEHAM,

head of the Fisheries Protection Service, who knows the wild life of the

whole coast, from the River St. Lawrence round to Hudson Bay.

Among the experts on animal life in general were:--THE BOONE AND

CROCKETT CLUB, whose one hundred members include most of the greatest

sportsman-naturalists in the United States, and whose influence on

wild-life conservation is second to none; THE CAMP FIRE CLUB OF AMERICA,

whose larger membership includes many of the best conservationists in

Canada as well as the United States; MR. GRINNELL, one of the greatest

authorities in the world on the Indians and wild life of North America;

MR. MACOUN, Dominion Naturalist and internationalexpert on seals and

whales, who lately examined the zoogeographical area of Hudson Bay; MR.

CLIVE-PHILLIPPS-WOLLEY, author of standard books on big game in the

_Badminton Library_ and elsewhere; MR. THOMPSON SETON, whose

_Life-history of Northern Mammals_ is the best work of its kind on the

area to which the Labrador peninsula belongs; MAJOR STEVENSON HAMILTON,

superintendent of the great Government Game Reserves in South Africa;

and MR. ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE, whose original and creative work on the

theory of evolution inseparably connects him with his friend Darwin for

all time to come, who is now the last of the giants of the Victorian

age, and who is the founder and greatest exponent of the science of

zoogeography, which has a special bearing on Labrador.

Among the experts on the public aspects of the question were:--MR.

BRYCE, who has been an ardent lover of the wilds throughout his

distinguished career on both sides of the Atlantic; LORD GREY, who paid

special attention to the subject during his journey to Hudson Bay in

1910; MR. KIPLING, whose _Jungle Books_ revealed the soul of wild life

to so many readers; and MR. ROOSEVELT, a sportsman-naturalist of

world-wide fame, during whose Presidential terms more wild-life

conservation was effected in the United States than during all other

Presidential terms put together, before or since.

To this I am graciously permitted to add that HIS MAJESTY THE KING was

pleased to manifest his interest in the subject by taking the _Address_

with him to read on his way to India; and that HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE

DUKE OF CONNAUGHT, Governor-General, who has shown his own keen interest

on several occasions, has marked his approval by writing the following

letter for publication here:--

Dear Colonel Wood,

I have been reading with the greatest interest your

address on Animal Sanctuaries in Labrador and also the

draft of the Supplement which you were good enough to

send me for perusal. You have certainly been so far

rewarded for your trouble by having collected a great

weight of testimony and of valuable opinions, all

endorsing the useful cause to which you are devoting

yourself.

I know from reports that many varieties of game, which

were threatened with extinction in South Africa ten years

ago, have, by the timelyestablishment of game reserves,

been saved, and are now relatively numerous. I may add

that this end has not been obtained simply by the

establishment of the reserves and by the passing of

game-laws, but by enforcing those laws in the most rigid

manner and by appointing the right men to enforce them.

From personal experience I know what the game reserves

have done for East Africa. In these reserves the wild

animals are left to breed and live in peace, undisturbed

by any one but the game-warden. From them the overflow

drifts out into the surrounding districts and provides a

plentiful supply for the hunter and settler. What has

been done in Africa could be done in Canada and

elsewhere. You have so much land which is favourable to

birds and beasts, though unfavourable to the settler,

that it would seem to be no hardship to give up a

suitable area or areas for the purpose of a reserve.

This, with the infliction of heavy penalties for the

ruthless destruction of animal life, should secure a

fresh lease of existence for the various species whose

extermination now appears to be imminent.

Please accept my best wishes for the success of your

work, in which you may always count upon my greatest

sympathy.

Believe me,

Yours truly,

ARTHUR.

II. VERIFICATION.

In order to make quite sure about conditions up to date, I spent two

months last summer examining some 1500 miles of coast line, from Nova

Scotia, round by Newfoundland to the Straits, and thence inwards along

the Canadian Labrador and North Shore of the St. Lawrence. On the whole,

I found that I had rather under- than over-stated the dangers

threatening the wild life there, and that I had nothing to retract from

what I said in my _Address_ and _Supplement_.

As I spent one month among the fishermen of Nova Scotia and

Newfoundland, who commit most of the depredations, and the other month

among the people along the Canadian Labrador, on whom the depredations

are committed, I enjoyed the advantage of hearing both sides of the

story. It was very much what I had heard before and what I said it was.

The argument is, that so long as there is no law, or no law put in

force, every man will do what he likes--which is unanswerably true. I am

also afraid that there is no practical answer to the logical deduction

from this, that so long as bad men can do what they like good men must

do the same or "get left". Good, bad and indifferent, all alike, are

squandering the capital of the wild life as fast as they can, though the

legitimate interest of it would soon yield far better returns if

conservation was to replace the beggaring methods in vogue to-day.

I would urge the earliest possible extension of thoroughly well enforced

wild-life conservation laws to the whole Labrador peninsula; and I would

venture to remind the Commission again, as I did in my _Supplement_,

that the wild life of Arctic Canada is even now in danger and ought to

be efficiently protected before it is too late. But, for the present

purpose, I shall revert to Labrador only; and, for a practical

beginning, recommend the immediate adoption of conservation only in the

"Canadian Labrador".


生词表:
  • annual [´ænjuəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.每年的 n.年刊   (初中英语单词)
  • consideration [kən,sidə´reiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.考虑;原因;体谅   (初中英语单词)
  • beginning [bi´giniŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.开始,开端;起源   (初中英语单词)
  • distribution [,distri´bju:ʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.分配;分布(状态)   (初中英语单词)
  • whatever [wɔt´evə] 移动到这儿单词发声  pron.&a.无论什么   (初中英语单词)
  • hesitate [´heziteit] 移动到这儿单词发声  vi.犹豫,踌躇   (初中英语单词)
  • gratefully [´greitfuli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.感激地   (初中英语单词)
  • acknowledge [ək´nɔlidʒ] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.(公开)承认;感谢   (初中英语单词)
  • learnt [lə:nt] 移动到这儿单词发声  learn 的过去式(分词)   (初中英语单词)
  • ashore [ə´ʃɔ:] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.向岸上   (初中英语单词)
  • generous [´dʒenərəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.慷慨的;丰盛的   (初中英语单词)
  • argument [´ɑ:gjumənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.辩论;争论;论证   (初中英语单词)
  • eagerly [´i:gəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.渴望地,急切地   (初中英语单词)
  • instance [´instəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.例子,实例,例证   (初中英语单词)
  • constant [´kɔnstənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.坚定的;坚贞的   (初中英语单词)
  • timber [´timbə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.木材;木料;横梁   (初中英语单词)
  • construction [kən´strʌkʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.建设;修建;结构   (初中英语单词)
  • absence [´æbsəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.不在,缺席;缺乏   (初中英语单词)
  • deadly [´dedli] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.致命的 ad.死一般地   (初中英语单词)
  • snatch [snætʃ] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.&n.抢,夺取,抓住   (初中英语单词)
  • phrase [freiz] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.短语;词组;措词   (初中英语单词)
  • restore [ri´stɔ:] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.(使)恢复;修复   (初中英语单词)
  • passive [´pæsiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.被动的 n.被动性   (初中英语单词)
  • contain [kən´tein] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.包含;容纳;抑制   (初中英语单词)
  • desirable [di´zaiərəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.向往的;极好的   (初中英语单词)
  • occasionally [ə´keiʒənəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.偶然地;非经常地   (初中英语单词)
  • interfere [,intə´fiə] 移动到这儿单词发声  vi.干涉;妨碍;打扰   (初中英语单词)
  • destruction [di´strʌkʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.破坏,毁灭   (初中英语单词)
  • opening [´əupəniŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.开放;开端 a.开始的   (初中英语单词)
  • protection [prə´tekʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.警戒;护照;通行证   (初中英语单词)
  • commercial [kə´mə:ʃəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.商业的 n.广告节目   (初中英语单词)
  • unlike [,ʌn´laik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不同的 prep.不象…   (初中英语单词)
  • replace [ri´pleis] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.放回;复置;取代   (初中英语单词)
  • pointed [´pɔintid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.尖(锐)的;中肯的   (初中英语单词)
  • review [ri´vju:] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.&n.复习;回顾;检查   (初中英语单词)
  • expert [´ekspə:t] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&a.专家;内行   (初中英语单词)
  • freely [´fri:li] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.自由地;慷慨地   (初中英语单词)
  • establishment [i´stæbliʃmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.建(成)立;研究所   (初中英语单词)
  • survey [´sə:vei] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.&n.俯瞰;审视;测量   (初中英语单词)
  • director [di´rektə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.指导者;….长;导演   (初中英语单词)
  • intimate [´intimit] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.亲密的 n.知己   (初中英语单词)
  • acquaintance [ə´kweintəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.相识;熟人,相识的人   (初中英语单词)
  • canadian [kə´neidiən] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.加拿大的n.加拿大人   (初中英语单词)
  • commander [kə´mɑ:ndə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.指挥员,司令员   (初中英语单词)
  • hudson [´hʌdsn] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.哈得孙河   (初中英语单词)
  • international [,intə´næʃənəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.国际的,世界的   (初中英语单词)
  • lately [´leitli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.近来,不久前   (初中英语单词)
  • elsewhere [,elsweə] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.在别处;向别处   (初中英语单词)
  • career [kə´riə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.经历;生涯;职业   (初中英语单词)
  • presidential [,prezi´denʃəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.总统的;统辖的   (初中英语单词)
  • majesty [´mædʒisti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.壮丽;崇高;尊严   (初中英语单词)
  • writing [´raitiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.书写;写作;书法   (初中英语单词)
  • reading [´ri:diŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.(阅)读;朗读;读物   (初中英语单词)
  • valuable [´væljuəbəl, -jubəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有价值的,贵重的   (初中英语单词)
  • enforce [in´fɔ:s] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.执行;强迫;加强   (初中英语单词)
  • hunter [´hʌntə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.猎人;猎狗;猎马   (初中英语单词)
  • settler [´setlə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.移居者;殖民者   (初中英语单词)
  • existence [ig´zistəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.存在;生存;生活   (初中英语单词)
  • thence [ðens] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.从那里;因此   (初中英语单词)
  • commit [kə´mit] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.犯(罪);把…判处   (初中英语单词)
  • advantage [əd´vɑ:ntidʒ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.优势;利益   (初中英语单词)
  • thoroughly [´θʌrəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.完全地,彻底地   (初中英语单词)
  • remind [ri´maind] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.提醒;使记(想)起   (初中英语单词)
  • recommend [,rekə´mend] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.推荐;使受欢迎   (初中英语单词)
  • circulation [,sə:kju´leiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.循环;流传;发行(量)   (高中英语单词)
  • dominion [də´miniən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.主权;统治权;领地   (高中英语单词)
  • commission [kə´miʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.委任(状) vt.委任   (高中英语单词)
  • conservation [,kɔnsə´veiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.保存;节约;守恒   (高中英语单词)
  • gladly [´glædli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.愉快地,高兴地   (高中英语单词)
  • concerning [kən´sə:niŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  prep.关于   (高中英语单词)
  • reckless [´rekləs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不注意的;鲁莽的   (高中英语单词)
  • navigation [,nævi´geiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.航行;航空;导航   (高中英语单词)
  • needless [´ni:dləs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不必要的;无用的   (高中英语单词)
  • hereafter [hiər´ɑ:ftə] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.&n.将来;来世   (高中英语单词)
  • administer [əd´ministə] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.管理;支配;执行   (高中英语单词)
  • overflow [´əuvəfləu] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.(使)泛滥 n.泛滥   (高中英语单词)
  • surrounding [sə´raundiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.周围的事物   (高中英语单词)
  • species [´spi:ʃi:z] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.(生物的)种,类   (高中英语单词)
  • nowhere [´nəuweə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.无处;不知道   (高中英语单词)
  • peninsula [pi´ninsjulə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.半岛   (高中英语单词)
  • invasion [in´veiʒən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.入侵;侵害;侵犯   (高中英语单词)
  • schooner [´sku:nə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.纵帆船   (高中英语单词)
  • legitimate [li´dʒitimit] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.合法的 vt.使合法   (高中英语单词)
  • finding [´faindiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.发现物;判断;结果   (高中英语单词)
  • inspector [in´spektə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.检查员;监察员   (高中英语单词)
  • salmon [´sæmən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.鲑,大马哈鱼   (高中英语单词)
  • membership [´membəʃip] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.会员资格;全体会员   (高中英语单词)
  • founder [´faundə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.奠基者 v.陷落   (高中英语单词)
  • bearing [´beəriŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.举止;忍耐;关系   (高中英语单词)
  • manifest [´mænifest] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.明显的 v.表明   (高中英语单词)
  • highness [´hainis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.高,高贵,高尚   (高中英语单词)
  • approval [ə´pru:vəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.赞成,批准,认可   (高中英语单词)
  • publication [,pʌbli´keiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.发表;公布;发行   (高中英语单词)
  • colonel [´kə:nəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.海(陆)军上校   (高中英语单词)
  • testimony [´testiməni] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.证明;证据;表明   (高中英语单词)
  • relatively [´relətivli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.比较地;相对地   (高中英语单词)
  • hardship [´hɑ:dʃip] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.受苦,吃苦;苦难   (高中英语单词)
  • hearing [´hiəriŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.听力;听证会;审讯   (高中英语单词)
  • indifferent [in´difrənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不关心的;中立的   (高中英语单词)
  • extension [ik´stenʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.延长;扩展;延期   (高中英语单词)
  • arctic [´ɑ:ktik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.北极的   (高中英语单词)
  • adoption [ə´dɔpʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.采用;收养   (高中英语单词)
  • preservation [,prezə´veiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.保存;储藏;维护   (英语四级单词)
  • quebec [kwi´bek] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.魁北克   (英语四级单词)
  • fishing [´fiʃiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.钓鱼;捕鱼;渔业   (英语四级单词)
  • livelihood [´laivlihud] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.生活,生计   (英语四级单词)
  • afloat [ə´fləut] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.&a.漂浮;在海上   (英语四级单词)
  • irrigation [,iri´geiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.灌溉;水利   (英语四级单词)
  • sanctuary [´sæŋktʃuəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.圣殿;寺院;避难所   (英语四级单词)
  • migration [mai´greiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.迁移;移居   (英语四级单词)
  • extinct [ik´stiŋkt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.熄灭的;灭绝的   (英语四级单词)
  • elderly [´eldəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  a. 较老的,年长的   (英语四级单词)
  • gathering [´gæðəriŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.集会,聚集   (英语四级单词)
  • warden [´wɔ:dn] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.看守人;监护人   (英语四级单词)
  • naturalist [´nætʃərəlist] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.自然主义者   (英语四级单词)
  • creative [kri:´eitiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有创造力的;创作的   (英语四级单词)
  • evolution [,i:və´lu:ʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.进化;发展;发育   (英语四级单词)
  • ardent [´ɑ:dənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.热心的;热情洋溢的   (英语四级单词)
  • graciously [´greiʃəsli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.仁慈地,和蔼庄重地   (英语四级单词)
  • supplement [´sʌplimənt, ´sʌpliment] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.增补;增刊;附录   (英语四级单词)
  • logical [´lɔdʒikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.逻辑(上)的   (英语四级单词)
  • first-class [´fə:st-´klɑ:s] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.头等的 ad.乘头等车   (英语六级单词)
  • hunting [´hʌntiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.打猎   (英语六级单词)
  • hereby [,hiə´bai] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.因此;特此   (英语六级单词)
  • labrador [´læbrədɔ:] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.拉布拉多猎狗   (英语六级单词)
  • systematic [,sisti´mætik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有系统的,成体系的   (英语六级单词)
  • eskimo [´eskiməu] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&a.爱斯基摩人(的)   (英语六级单词)
  • wasteful [´weistfəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.浪费的,挥霍的   (英语六级单词)
  • invaluable [in´væljuəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.无价的,非常重要的   (英语六级单词)
  • geological [dʒiə´lɔdʒikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.地质学的   (英语六级单词)
  • taking [´teikiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.迷人的 n.捕获物   (英语六级单词)
  • timely [´taimli] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.及时的;适合的   (英语六级单词)
  • newfoundland [,nju:fənd´lænd] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.纽芬兰(岛)   (英语六级单词)
  • efficiently [i´fiʃəntli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.有效地;能胜任地   (英语六级单词)
  • revert [ri´və:t] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.使颠倒;使回转   (英语六级单词)

  • 上传人 欢乐鱼 分享于 2017-06-26 18:03:22
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