Macmillan and Co. edition. Proofed by Margaret Rose Price, Dagny and

David Price.





by Thomas Hardy


This story of the Mellstock Quire and its old established west-gallery

musicians, with some supplementary descriptions of similar officials in

Two on a Tower, A Few Crusted Characters, and other places, is intended

to be a fairly true picture, at first hand, of the personages, ways, and

customs which were common among such orchestral bodies in the villages of

fifty or sixty years ago.

One is inclined to regret the displacement of these ecclesiastical

bandsmen by an isolated organist (often at first a barrel-organist) or

harmonium player; and despite certain advantages in point of control and

accomplishment which were, no doubt, secured by installing the single

artist, the change has tended to stultify the professed aims of the

clergy, its direct result being to curtail and extinguish the interest of

parishioners in church doings. Under the old plan, from half a dozen to

ten full-grown players, in addition to the numerous more or less grown-up

singers, were officially occupied with the Sunday routine, and concerned

in trying their best to make it an artisticoutcome of the combined

musical taste of the congregation. With a musicalexecutive limited, as

it mostly is limited now, to the parson's wife or daughter and the school-

children, or to the school-teacher and the children, an important union

of interests has disappeared.

The zest of these bygone instrumentalists must have been keen and staying

to take them, as it did, on foot every Sunday after a toilsome week,

through all weathers, to the church, which often lay at a distance from

their homes. They usually received so little in payment for their

performances that their efforts were really a labour of love. In the

parish I had in my mind when writing the present tale, the gratuities

received yearly by the musicians at Christmas were somewhat as follows:

From the manor-house ten shillings and a supper; from the vicar ten

shillings; from the farmers five shillings each; from each

cottage-household one shilling; amounting altogether to not more than ten

shillings a head annually--just enough, as an old executant told me, to

pay for their fiddle-strings, repairs, rosin, and music-paper (which they

mostly ruled themselves). Their music in those days was all in their own

manuscript, copied in the evenings after work, and their music-books were


It was customary to inscribe a few jigs, reels, horn-pipes, and ballads

in the same book, by beginning it at the other end, the insertions being

continued from front and back till sacred and secular met together in the

middle, often with bizarre effect, the words of some of the songs

exhibiting that ancient and broad humour which our grandfathers, and

possibly grandmothers, took delight in, and is in these days unquotable.

The aforesaid fiddle-strings, rosin, and music-paper were supplied by a

pedlar, who travelled exclusively in such wares from parish to parish,

coming to each village about every six months. Tales are told of the

consternation once caused among the church fiddlers when, on the occasion

of their producing a new Christmas anthem, he did not come to time, owing

to being snowed up on the downs, and the straits they were in through

having to make shift with whipcord and twine for strings. He was

generally a musician himself, and sometimes a composer in a small way,

bringing his own new tunes, and tempting each choir to adopt them for a

consideration. Some of these compositions which now lie before me, with

their repetitions of lines, half-lines, and half-words, their fugues and

their intermediate symphonies, are good singing still, though they would

hardly be admitted into such hymn-books as are popular in the churches of

fashionable society at the present time.

August 1896.

Under the Greenwood Tree was first brought out in the summer of 1872 in

two volumes. The name of the story was originally intended to be, more

appropriately, The Mellstock Quire, and this has been appended as a sub-

title since the early editions, it having been thought unadvisable to

displace for it the title by which the book first became known.

In rereading the narrative after a long interval there occurs the

inevitable reflection that the realities out of which it was spun were

material for another kind of study of this little group of church

musicians than is found in the chapters here penned so lightly, even so

farcically and flippantly at times. But circumstances would have

rendered any aim at a deeper, more essential, more transcendent handling

unadvisable at the date of writing; and the exhibition of the Mellstock

Quire in the following pages must remain the only extant one, except for

the few glimpses of that perished band which I have given in verse


T. H.

April 1912.



To dwellers in a wood almost every species of tree has its voice as well

as its feature. At the passing of the breeze the fir-trees sob and moan

no less distinctly than they rock; the holly whistles as it battles with

itself; the ash hisses amid its quiverings; the beech rustles while its

flat boughs rise and fall. And winter, which modifies the note of such

trees as shed their leaves, does not destroy its individuality.

On a cold and starry Christmas-eve within living memory a man was passing

up a lane towards Mellstock Cross in the darkness of a plantation that

whispered thus distinctively to his intelligence. All the evidences of

his nature were those afforded by the spirit of his footsteps, which

succeeded each other lightly and quickly, and by the liveliness of his

voice as he sang in a rural cadence:

"With the rose and the lily

And the daffodowndilly,

The lads and the lasses a-sheep-shearing go."

The lonely lane he was following connected one of the hamlets of

Mellstock parish with Upper Mellstock and Lewgate, and to his eyes,

casually glancing upward, the silver and black-stemmed birches with their

characteristic tufts, the pale grey boughs of beech, the dark-creviced

elm, all appeared now as black and flat outlines upon the sky, wherein

the white stars twinkled so vehemently that their flickering seemed like

the flapping of wings. Within the woody pass, at a level anything lower

than the horizon, all was dark as the grave. The copse-wood forming the

sides of the bower interlaced its branches so densely, even at this

season of the year, that the draught from the north-east flew along the

channel with scarcely an interruption from lateral breezes.

After passing the plantation and reaching Mellstock Cross the white

surface of the lane revealed itself between the dark hedgerows like a

ribbon jagged at the edges; the irregularity being caused by temporary

accumulations of leaves extending from the ditch on either side.

The song (many times interrupted by flitting thoughts which took the

place of several bars, and resumed at a point it would have reached had

its continuity been unbroken) now received a more palpable check, in the

shape of "Ho-i-i-i-i-i!" from the crossing lane to Lower Mellstock, on

the right of the singer who had just emerged from the trees.

"Ho-i-i-i-i-i!" he answered, stopping and looking round, though with no

idea of seeing anything more than imagination pictured.

"Is that thee, young Dick Dewy?" came from the darkness.

"Ay, sure, Michael Mail."

"Then why not stop for fellow-craters--going to thy own father's house

too, as we be, and knowen us so well?"

Dick Dewy faced about and continued his tune in an under-whistle,

implying that the business of his mouth could not be checked at a

moment's notice by the placidemotion of friendship.

Having come more into the open he could now be seen rising against the

sky, his profile appearing on the light background like the portrait of a

gentleman in black cardboard. It assumed the form of a low-crowned hat,

an ordinary-shaped nose, an ordinary chin, an ordinary neck, and ordinary

shoulders. What he consisted of further down was invisible from lack of

sky low enough to picture him on.

Shuffling, halting, irregular footsteps of various kinds were now heard

coming up the hill, and presently there emerged from the shade severally

five men of different ages and gaits, all of them working villagers of

the parish of Mellstock. They, too, had lost their rotundity with the

daylight, and advanced against the sky in flat outlines, which suggested

some processional design on Greek or Etruscan pottery. They represented

the chief portion of Mellstock parish choir.

The first was a bowed and bent man, who carried a fiddle under his arm,

and walked as if engaged in studying some subject connected with the

surface of the road. He was Michael Mail, the man who had hallooed to


The next was Mr. Robert Penny, boot- and shoemaker; a little man, who,

though rather round-shouldered, walked as if that fact had not come to

his own knowledge, moving on with his back very hollow and his face fixed

on the north-east quarter of the heavens before him, so that his lower

waist-coat-buttons came first, and then the remainder of his figure. His

features were invisible; yet when he occasionally looked round, two faint

moons of light gleamed for an instant from the precincts of his eyes,

denoting that he wore spectacles of a circular form.

The third was Elias Spinks, who walked perpendicularly and dramatically.

The fourth outline was Joseph Bowman's, who had now no distinctive

appearance beyond that of a human being. Finally came a weak lath-like

form, trotting and stumbling along with one shoulder forward and his head

inclined to the left, his arms dangling nervelessly in the wind as if

they were empty sleeves. This was Thomas Leaf.

"Where be the boys?" said Dick to this somewhat indifferently-matched


The eldest of the group, Michael Mail, cleared his throat from a great


"We told them to keep back at home for a time, thinken they wouldn't be

wanted yet awhile; and we could choose the tuens, and so on."

"Father and grandfather William have expected ye a little sooner. I have

just been for a run round by Ewelease Stile and Hollow Hill to warm my


"To be sure father did! To be sure 'a did expect us--to taste the little

barrel beyond compare that he's going to tap."

"'Od rabbit it all! Never heard a word of it!" said Mr. Penny, gleams of

delight appearing upon his spectacle-glasses, Dick meanwhile singing


"The lads and the lasses a-sheep-shearing go."

"Neighbours, there's time enough to drink a sight of drink now afore

bedtime?" said Mail.

"True, true--time enough to get as drunk as lords!" replied Bowman


This opinion being taken as convincing they all advanced between the

varying hedges and the trees dotting them here and there, kicking their

toes occasionally among the crumpled leaves. Soon appeared glimmering

indications of the few cottages forming the small hamlet of Upper

Mellstock for which they were bound, whilst the faint sound of church-

bells ringing a Christmas peal could be heard floating over upon the

breeze from the direction of Longpuddle and Weatherbury parishes on the

other side of the hills. A little wicket admitted them to the garden,

and they proceeded up the path to Dick's house.


It was a long low cottage with a hipped roof of thatch, having dormer

windows breaking up into the eaves, a chimney standing in the middle of

the ridge and another at each end. The window-shutters were not yet

closed, and the fire- and candle-light within radiated forth upon the

thick bushes of box and laurestinus growing in clumps outside, and upon

the bare boughs of several codlin-trees hanging about in various

distorted shapes, the result of early training as espaliers combined with

careless climbing into their boughs in later years. The walls of the

dwelling were for the most part covered with creepers, though these were

rather beaten back from the doorway--a feature which was worn and

scratched by much passing in and out, giving it by day the appearance of

an old keyhole. Light streamed through the cracks and joints of

outbuildings a little way from the cottage, a sight which nourished a

fancy that the purpose of the erection must be rather to veil bright

attractions than to shelter unsightly necessaries. The noise of a beetle

and wedges and the splintering of wood was periodically heard from this

direction; and at some little distance further a steady regular munching

and the occasional scurr of a rope betokened a stable, and horses feeding

within it.

The choir stamped severally on the door-stone to shake from their boots

any fragment of earth or leaf adhering thereto, then entered the house

and looked around to survey the condition of things. Through the open

doorway of a small inner room on the right hand, of a character between

pantry and cellar, was Dick Dewy's father Reuben, by vocation a

"tranter," or irregular carrier. He was a stout florid man about forty

years of age, who surveyed people up and down when first making their

acquaintance, and generally smiled at the horizon or other distant object

during conversations with friends, walking about with a steady sway, and

turning out his toes very considerably. Being now occupied in bending

over a hogshead, that stood in the pantry ready horsed for the process of

broaching, he did not take the trouble to turn or raise his eyes at the

entry of his visitors, well knowing by their footsteps that they were the

expected old comrades.

The main room, on the left, was decked with bunches of holly and other

evergreens, and from the middle of the beam bisecting the ceiling hung

the mistletoe, of a size out of all proportion to the room, and extending

so low that it became necessary for a full-grown person to walk round it

in passing, or run the risk of entangling his hair. This apartment

contained Mrs. Dewy the tranter's wife, and the four remaining children,

Susan, Jim, Bessy, and Charley, graduating uniformly though at wide

stages from the age of sixteen to that of four years--the eldest of the

series being separated from Dick the firstborn by a nearly equal


Some circumstance had apparently caused much grief to Charley just

previous to the entry of the choir, and he had absently taken down a

small looking-glass, holding it before his face to learn how the human

countenance appeared when engaged in crying, which survey led him to

pause at the various points in each wail that were more than ordinarily

striking, for a thoroughappreciation of the general effect. Bessy was

leaning against a chair, and glancing under the plaits about the waist of

the plaid frock she wore, to notice the original unfaded pattern of the

material as there preserved, her face bearing an expression of regret

that the brightness had passed away from the visible portions. Mrs. Dewy

sat in a brown settle by the side of the glowing wood fire--so glowing

that with a heedful compression of the lips she would now and then rise

and put her hand upon the hams and flitches of bacon lining the chimney,

to reassure herself that they were not being broiled instead of smoked--a

misfortune that had been known to happen now and then at Christmas-time.

"Hullo, my sonnies, here you be, then!" said Reuben Dewy at length,

standing up and blowing forth a vehement gust of breath. "How the blood

do puff up in anybody's head, to be sure, a-stooping like that! I was

just going out to gate to hark for ye." He then carefully began to wind

a strip of brown paper round a brass tap he held in his hand. "This in

  • painting [´peintiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.绘画;(油)画;着色   (初中英语单词)
  • player [´pleiə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.游戏的人;选手   (初中英语单词)
  • despite [di´spait] 移动到这儿单词发声  prep.尽管   (初中英语单词)
  • doings [´du:iŋz] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.行动;所作的事   (初中英语单词)
  • addition [ə´diʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.加;加法;附加物   (初中英语单词)
  • musical [´mju:zikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.音乐的;悦耳的   (初中英语单词)
  • executive [ig´zekjutiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.行政的 n.行政官   (初中英语单词)
  • mostly [´məustli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.主要地;多半;通常   (初中英语单词)
  • payment [´peimənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.支付;报酬;报偿   (初中英语单词)
  • writing [´raitiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.书写;写作;书法   (初中英语单词)
  • altogether [,ɔ:ltə´geðə] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.完全;总而言之   (初中英语单词)
  • beginning [bi´giniŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.开始,开端;起源   (初中英语单词)
  • sacred [´seikrid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.神圣的;庄严的   (初中英语单词)
  • humour [´hju:mə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.幽默,诙谐   (初中英语单词)
  • composer [kəm´pəuzə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.作曲家;创作者   (初中英语单词)
  • interval [´intəvəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.间隙;(工间)休息   (初中英语单词)
  • reflection [ri´flekʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.反射;映象;想法   (初中英语单词)
  • lightly [´laitli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.轻微地,稍微   (初中英语单词)
  • essential [i´senʃəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.必需的 n.要素,要点   (初中英语单词)
  • breeze [bri:z] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.微风;不费力的事   (初中英语单词)
  • distinctly [di´stiŋktli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.清楚地,明晰地   (初中英语单词)
  • intelligence [in´telidʒəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.智力;消息   (初中英语单词)
  • lonely [´ləunli] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.孤独的;无人烟的   (初中英语单词)
  • upward [´ʌpwəd] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.&ad.向上(的);以上   (初中英语单词)
  • horizon [hə´raizən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.地平线;范围;视野   (初中英语单词)
  • interruption [intə´rʌpʃ(ə)n] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.停止,中断   (初中英语单词)
  • singer [´siŋə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.歌手,演唱者   (初中英语单词)
  • imagination [i,mædʒi´neiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.想象(力)   (初中英语单词)
  • emotion [i´məuʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.感情;情绪;激动   (初中英语单词)
  • background [´bækgraund] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.背景;经历;幕后   (初中英语单词)
  • invisible [in´vizəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.看不见的;无形的   (初中英语单词)
  • presently [´prezəntli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.不久;目前   (初中英语单词)
  • working [´wə:kiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.工人的;劳动的   (初中英语单词)
  • advanced [əd´vɑ:nst] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.先进的;高级的   (初中英语单词)
  • portion [´pɔ:ʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.嫁妆;命运 vt.分配   (初中英语单词)
  • occasionally [ə´keiʒənəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.偶然地;非经常地   (初中英语单词)
  • instant [´instənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.立即的 n.紧迫;瞬间   (初中英语单词)
  • circular [´sə:kjulə] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.圆形的 n.通知   (初中英语单词)
  • outline [´autlain] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.外形 vt.画出…轮廓   (初中英语单词)
  • throat [θrəut] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.咽喉;嗓子;出入口   (初中英语单词)
  • awhile [ə´wail] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.少顷;片刻   (初中英语单词)
  • grandfather [´grænd,fɑ:ðə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.(外)祖父;祖先   (初中英语单词)
  • rabbit [´ræbit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.兔子,野兔   (初中英语单词)
  • meanwhile [´mi:n´wail] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&ad.其间;同时   (初中英语单词)
  • cottage [´kɔtidʒ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.村舍;小屋;小别墅   (初中英语单词)
  • standing [´stændiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.持续 a.直立的   (初中英语单词)
  • beaten [´bi:tn] 移动到这儿单词发声  beat 的过去分词   (初中英语单词)
  • occasional [ə´keiʒənəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.偶然的;临时的   (初中英语单词)
  • stable [´steibəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.马棚 a.稳固的   (初中英语单词)
  • fragment [´frægmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.碎片;破片;断片   (初中英语单词)
  • survey [´sə:vei] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.&n.俯瞰;审视;测量   (初中英语单词)
  • character [´kæriktə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.特性;性质;人物;字   (初中英语单词)
  • cellar [´selə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.地窑,地下室   (初中英语单词)
  • knowing [´nəuiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.会意的,心照不宣的   (初中英语单词)
  • proportion [prə´pɔ:ʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.比率 vt.使成比例   (初中英语单词)
  • visible [´vizəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.可见的;明显的   (初中英语单词)
  • breath [breθ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.呼吸;气息   (初中英语单词)
  • edition [i´diʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.版本;很相似的   (高中英语单词)
  • routine [ru:´ti:n] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.日常工作 a.日常的   (高中英语单词)
  • artistic [ɑ:´tistik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.艺术的;有美感的   (高中英语单词)
  • limited [´limitid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有限(制)的   (高中英语单词)
  • shilling [´ʃiliŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.先令   (高中英语单词)
  • customary [´kʌstəməri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.通常的;惯例的   (高中英语单词)
  • parish [´pæriʃ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.教区(的全体居民)   (高中英语单词)
  • musician [mju:´ziʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.音乐家,作曲家   (高中英语单词)
  • originally [ə´ridʒənəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.本来;独创地   (高中英语单词)
  • narrative [´nærətiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.叙述的 n.记事   (高中英语单词)
  • exhibition [eksi´biʃ(ə)n] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.展览;显示;表演   (高中英语单词)
  • species [´spi:ʃi:z] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.(生物的)种,类   (高中英语单词)
  • plantation [plæn´teiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.种植园;栽植;移民   (高中英语单词)
  • liveliness [´laivlinis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.生气勃勃;繁华   (高中英语单词)
  • draught [drɑ:ft] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.通风,通气;吸出   (高中英语单词)
  • seeing [si:iŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  see的现在分词 n.视觉   (高中英语单词)
  • portrait [´pɔ:trit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.肖像;相片;雕像   (高中英语单词)
  • irregular [i´regjulə] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不规则的;不正当的   (高中英语单词)
  • shoemaker [´ʃu:,meikə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.鞋匠   (高中英语单词)
  • remainder [ri´meində] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.剩余物;残余部分   (高中英语单词)
  • eldest [´eldist] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.最年长的   (高中英语单词)
  • hamlet [´hæmlit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.村庄   (高中英语单词)
  • whilst [wailst] 移动到这儿单词发声  conj.当…时候;虽然   (高中英语单词)
  • hanging [´hæŋiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.绞刑 a.悬挂着的   (高中英语单词)
  • carrier [´kæriə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.搬运工人;托架   (高中英语单词)
  • considerably [kən´sidərəbli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.显著地;十分   (高中英语单词)
  • pantry [´pæntri] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.食品室;餐具室   (高中英语单词)
  • apparently [ə´pærəntli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.显然,表面上地   (高中英语单词)
  • thorough [´θʌrə] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.彻底的;详尽的   (高中英语单词)
  • appreciation [ə,pri:ʃi´eiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.评价;感激   (高中英语单词)
  • bearing [´beəriŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.举止;忍耐;关系   (高中英语单词)
  • brightness [´braitnis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.光明;快乐   (高中英语单词)
  • lining [´lainiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.衬里;衬料   (高中英语单词)
  • reassure [,ri:ə´ʃuə] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.使放心   (高中英语单词)
  • extinguish [ik´stiŋgwiʃ] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.熄灭;压制(抑)   (英语四级单词)
  • officially [ə´fiʃəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.以职员身份;正式   (英语四级单词)
  • trying [´traiiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.难堪的;费劲的   (英语四级单词)
  • outcome [´autkʌm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.结果;后果;成果   (英语四级单词)
  • congregation [,kɔŋgri´geiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.集合;团体   (英语四级单词)
  • yearly [´jiəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.每年的;一年间的   (英语四级单词)
  • inscribe [in´skraib] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.题写;铭刻;题名   (英语四级单词)
  • exclusively [ik´sklu:sivli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.独有地;排外地   (英语四级单词)
  • tempting [´temptiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.引诱人的,吸引人的   (英语四级单词)
  • starry [´stɑ:ri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.星光照耀的,闪亮的   (英语四级单词)
  • placid [´plæsid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.平静的;温和的   (英语四级单词)
  • cardboard [´kɑ:dbɔ:d] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.纸板;卡纸   (英语四级单词)
  • fiddle [´fidl] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.小提琴 v.拉提琴   (英语四级单词)
  • convincing [kən´vinsiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有说服力的;有力的   (英语四级单词)
  • thatch [θætʃ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.茅草屋顶   (英语四级单词)
  • greenwood [´gri:nwud] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.绿林   (英语六级单词)
  • organist [´ɔ:gənist] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.风琴手   (英语六级单词)
  • curtail [kə:´teil] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.缩短;削减   (英语六级单词)
  • secular [´sekjulə] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.世俗的;现世的   (英语六级单词)
  • anthem [´ænθəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.圣歌;赞歌   (英语六级单词)
  • intermediate [,intə´mi:diət] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.中间的   (英语六级单词)
  • densely [´densli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.密集地;浓厚地   (英语六级单词)
  • lateral [´lætərəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.横的,侧面的   (英语六级单词)
  • profile [´prəufail] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.侧面 vt.画…侧面   (英语六级单词)
  • pottery [´pɔtəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.陶器;陶器制造厂   (英语六级单词)
  • erection [i´rekʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.直立,建立;建筑物   (英语六级单词)
  • thereto [ðeə´tu:] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.到那里;另外   (英语六级单词)
  • vocation [vəu´keiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.职业;使命;天职   (英语六级单词)
  • uniformly [´ju:nifɔ:mli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.一致地,齐心地   (英语六级单词)
  • firstborn [´fə:stbɔ:n] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.&n.头生的(子女)   (英语六级单词)
  • absently [´æbsəntli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.心不在焉地   (英语六级单词)
  • holding [´həuldiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.保持,固定,存储   (英语六级单词)
  • vehement [´viəmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.猛烈的;热烈的   (英语六级单词)

  • 上传人 欢乐鱼 分享于 2017-06-26 18:19:19
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