His Private Secretary

Edited by R. W. Phipps

Colonel, Late Royal Artillery




Notes and Introduction

Chapter I. to Chapter IV., 1797



In introducing the present edition of M. de Bourrienne's Memoirs to the

public we are bound, as Editors, to say a few Words on the subject.

Agreeing, however, with Horace Walpole that an editor should not dwell

for any length of time on the merits of his author, we shall touch but

lightly on this part of the matter. We are the more ready to abstain

since the great success in England of the former editions of these

Memoirs, and the high reputation they have acquired on the European

Continent, and in every part of the civilised world where the fame of

Bonaparte has ever reached, sufficiently establish the merits of M. de

Bourrienne as a biographer. These merits seem to us to consist chiefly

in an anxious desire to be impartial, to point out the defects as well as

the merits of a most wonderful man; and in a peculiarlygraphic power of

relating facts and anecdotes. With this happy faculty Bourrienne would

have made the life of almost any active individual interesting; but the

subject of which the most favourable circumstances permitted him to treat

was full of events and of the most extraordinary facts. The hero of his

story was such a being as the world has produced only on the rarest

occasions, and the complete counterpart to whom has, probably, never

existed; for there are broad shades of difference between Napoleon and

Alexander, Caesar, and Charlemagne; neither will modern history furnish

more exact parallels, since Gustavus Adolphus, Frederick the Great,

Cromwell, Washington, or Bolivar bear but a small resemblance to

Bonaparte either in character, fortune, or extent of enterprise. For

fourteen years, to say nothing of his projects in the East, the history

of Bonaparte was the history of all Europe!

With the copious materials he possessed, M. de Bourrienne has produced a

work which, for deep interest, excitement, and amusement, can scarcely be

paralleled by any of the numerous and excellent memoirs for which the

literature of France is so justly celebrated.

M. de Bourrienne shows us the hero of Marengo and Austerlitz in his

night-gown and slippers--with a 'trait de plume' he, in a hundred

instances, places the real man before us, with all his personal habits

and peculiarities of manner, temper, and conversation.

The friendship between Bonaparte and Bourrienne began in boyhood, at the

school of Brienne, and their unreserved intimacy continued during the

most brilliant part of Napoleon's career. We have said enough, the

motives for his writing this work and his competency for the task will be

best explained in M. de Bourrienne's own words, which the reader will

find in the Introductory Chapter.

M. de Bourrienne says little of Napoleon after his first abdication and

retirement to Elba in 1814: we have endeavoured to fill up the chasm thus

left by following his hero through the remaining seven years of his life,

to the "last scenes of all" that ended his "strange, eventful history,"

--to his deathbed and alien grave at St. Helena. A completeness will

thus be given to the work which it did not before possess, and which we

hope will, with the other additions and improvements already alluded to,

tend to give it a place in every well-selected library, as one of the

most satisfactory of all the lives of Napoleon.

LONDON, 1836.



The Memoirs of the time of Napoleon may be divided into two classes--

those by marshals and officers, of which Suchet's is a good example,

chiefly devoted to military movements, and those by persons employed in

the administration and in the Court, giving us not only materials for

history, but also valuable details of the personal and inner life of the

great Emperor and of his immediate surroundings. Of this latter class

the Memoirs of Bourrienne are among the most important.

Long the intimate and personal friend of Napoleon both at school and from

the end of the Italian campaigns in 1797 till 1802--working in the same

room with him, using the same purse, the confidant of most of his

schemes, and, as his secretary, having the largest part of all the

official and private correspondence of the time passed through his hands,

Bourrienne occupied an invaluable position for storing and recording

materials for history. The Memoirs of his successor, Meneval, are more

those of an esteemed private secretary; yet, valuable and interesting as

they are, they want the peculiarity of position which marks those of

Bourrienne, who was a compound of secretary, minister, and friend. The

accounts of such men as Miot de Melito, Raederer, etc., are most

valuable, but these writers were not in that close contact with Napoleon

enjoyed by Bourrienne. Bourrienne's position was simply unique, and we

can only regret that he did not occupy it till the end of the Empire.

Thus it is natural that his Memoirs should have been largely used by

historians, and to properly understand the history of the time, they must

be read by all students. They are indeed full of interest for every one.

But they also require to be read with great caution. When we meet with

praise of Napoleon, we may generally believe it, for, as Thiers

(Consulat., ii. 279) says, Bourrienne need be little suspected on this

side, for although he owed everything to Napoleon, he has not seemed to

remember it. But very often in passages in which blame is thrown on

Napoleon, Bourrienne speaks, partly with much of the natural bitterness

of a former and discarded friend, and partly with the curious mixed

feeling which even the brothers of Napoleon display in their Memoirs,

pride in the wonderful abilities evinced by the man with whom he was

allied, and jealousy at the way in which he was outshone by the man he

had in youth regarded as inferior to himself. Sometimes also we may even

suspect the praise. Thus when Bourrienne defends Napoleon for giving, as

he alleges, poison to the sick at Jaffa, a doubt arises whether his

object was to really defend what to most Englishmen of this day, with

remembrances of the deeds and resolutions of the Indian Mutiny, will seem

an act to be pardoned, if not approved; or whether he was more anxious to

fix the committal of the act on Napoleon at a time when public opinion

loudly blamed it. The same may be said of his defence of the massacre of

the prisoners of Jaffa.

Louis Antoine Fauvelet de Bourrienne was born in 1769, that is, in the

same year as Napoleon Bonaparte, and he was the friend and companion of

the future Emperor at the military school of Brienne-le-Chateau till

1784, when Napoleon, one of the sixty pupils maintained at the expense of

the State, was passed on to the Military School of Paris. The friends

again met in 1792 and in 1795, when Napoleon was hanging about Paris, and

when Bourrienne looked on the vague dreams of his old schoolmate as only

so much folly. In 1796, as soon as Napoleon had assured his position at

the head of the army of Italy, anxious as ever to surround himself with

known faces, he sent for Bourrienne to be his secretary. Bourrienne had

been appointed in 1792 as secretary of the Legation at Stuttgart, and

had, probably wisely, disobeyed the orders given him to return, thus

escaping the dangers of the Revolution. He only came back to Paris in

1795, having thus become an emigre. He joined Napoleon in 1797, after the

Austrians had been beaten out of Italy, and at once assumed the office of

secretary which he held for so long. He had sufficient tact to forbear

treating the haughty young General with any assumption of familiarity in

public, and he was indefatigable enough to please even the never-resting

Napoleon. Talent Bourrienne had in abundance; indeed he is careful to

hint that at school if any one had been asked to predictgreatness for

any pupil, it was Bourrienne, not Napoleon, who would have been fixed on

as the future star. He went with his General to Egypt, and returned with

him to France. While Napoleon was making his formal entry into the

Tuilleries, Bourrienne was preparing the cabinet he was still to share

with the Consul. In this cabinet--our cabinet, as he is careful to call

it--he worked with the First Consul till 1802.

During all this time the pair lead lives on terms of equality and

friendship creditable to both. The secretary neither asked for nor

received any salary: when he required money, he simply dipped into the

cash-box of the First Consul. As the whole power of the State gradually

passed into the hands of the Consul, the labours of the secretary became

heavier. His successor broke down under a lighter load, and had to

receive assistance; but, perhaps borne up by the absorbing interest of

the work and the great influence given by his post, Bourrienne stuck to

his place, and to all appearance might, except for himself, have come

down to us as the companion of Napoleon during his whole life. He had

enemies, and one of them--[Boulay de la Meurthe.]--has not shrunk from

describing their gratification at the disgrace of the trusted secretary.

Any one in favour, or indeed in office, under Napoleon was the sure mark

of calumny for all aspirants to place; yet Bourrienne might have

weathered any temporary storm raised by unfounded reports as successfully

as Meneval, who followed him. But Bourrienne's hands were not clean in

money matters, and that was an unpardonable sin in any one who desired to

be in real intimacy with Napoleon. He became involved in the affairs of

the House of Coulon, which failed, as will be seen in the notes, at the

time of his disgrace; and in October 1802 he was called on to hand over

his office to Meneval, who retained it till invalided after the Russian


As has been said, Bourrienne would naturally be the mark for many

accusations, but the conclusive proof of his misconduct--at least for any

one acquainted with Napoleon's objection and dislike to changes in

office, whether from his strong belief in the effects of training, or his

equally strong dislike of new faces round him--is that he was never again

employed near his old comrade; indeed he really never saw the Emperor

again at any private interview, except when granted the naval official

reception in 1805, before leaving to take up his post at Hamburg, which

he held till 1810. We know that his re-employment was urged by Josephine

and several of his former companions. Savary himself says he tried his

advocacy; but Napoleon was inexorable to those who, in his own phrase,

had sacrificed to the golden calf.

Sent, as we have said, to Hamburg in 1805, as Minister Plenipotentiary to

the Duke of Brunswick, the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and to the Hanse

towns, Bourrienne knew how to make his post an important one. He was at

one of the great seats of the commerce which suffered so fearfully from

the Continental system of the Emperor, and he was charged to watch over

the German press. How well he fulfilled this duty we learn from

Metternich, who writes in 1805: "I have sent an article to the newspaper

editors in Berlin and to M. de Hofer at Hamburg. I do not know whether

it has been accepted, for M. Bourrienne still exercises an authority so

severe over these journals that they are always submitted to him before

they appear, that he may erase or alter the articles which do not please


His position at Hamburg gave him great opportunities for both financial

and political intrigues. In his Memoirs, as Meneval remarks, he or his

editor is not ashamed to boast of being thanked by Louis XVIII. at St.

Ouen for services rendered while he was the minister of Napoleon at

Hamburg. He was recalled in 1810, when the Hanse towns were united, or,

to use the phrase of the day, re-united to the Empire. He then hung

about Paris, keeping on good terms with some of the ministers--Savary,

not the most reputable of them, for example. In 1814 he was to be found

at the office of Lavallette, the head of the posts, disguising, his

enemies said, his delight at the bad news which was pouring in, by

exaggerated expressions of devotion. He is accused of a close and

suspicious connection with Talleyrand, and it is odd that when Talleyrand

became head of the Provisional Government in 1814, Bourrienne of all

persons should have been put at the head of the posts. Received in the

most flattering manner by Louis XVIII, he was as astonished as poor

Beugnot was in 1815, to find himself on 13th May suddenly ejected from

office, having, however, had time to furnish post-horses to Manbreuil for

the mysterious expedition, said to have been at least known to

Talleyrand, and intended certainly for the robbery of the Queen of

Westphalia, and probably for the murder of Napoleon.

In the extraordinaryscurry before the Bourbons scuttled out of Paris in

1814, Bourrienne was made Prefet of the Police for a few days, his tenure

of that post being signalised by the abortive attempt to arrest Fouche,

the only effect of which was to drive that wily minister into the arms of

the Bonapartists.

He fled with the King, and was exempted from the amnesty proclaimed by

Napoleon. On the return from Ghent he was made a Minister of State

without portfolio, and also became one of the Council. The ruin of his

finances drove him out of France, but he eventually died in a madhouse at


When the Memoirs first appeared in 1829 they made a great sensation.

Till then in most writings Napoleon had been treated as either a demon or

as a demi-god. The real facts of the case were not suited to the tastes

of either his enemies or his admirers. While the monarchs of Europe had

been disputing among themselves about the division of the spoils to be

obtained from France and from the unsettlement of the Continent, there

had arisen an extraordinarily clever and unscrupulous man who, by

alternately bribing and overthrowing the great monarchies, had soon made

himself master of the mainland. His admirers were unwilling to admit the

part played in his success by the jealousy of his foes of each other's

share in the booty, and they delighted to invest him with every great

quality which man could possess. His enemies were ready enough to allow

his military talents, but they wished to attribute the first success of

his not very deep policy to a marvellous duplicity, apparently considered

by them the more wicked as possessed by a parvenu emperor, and far

removed, in a moral point of view, from the statecraft so allowable in an

ancient monarchy. But for Napoleon himself and his family and Court

there was literally no limit to the really marvellous inventions of his

enemies. He might enter every capital on the Continent, but there was

some consolation in believing that he himself was a monster of

wickedness, and his Court but the scene of one long protracted orgie.

There was enough against the Emperor in the Memoirs to make them

comfortable reading for his opponents, though very many of the old

calumnies were disposed of in them. They contained indeed the nearest

approximation to the truth which had yet appeared. Metternich, who must

have been a good judge, as no man was better acquainted with what he

himself calls the "age of Napoleon," says of the Memoirs: "If you want

something to read, both interesting and amusing, get the Memoires de

Bourrienne. These are the only authentic Memoirs of Napoleon which have

yet appeared. The style is not brilliant, but that only makes them the

more trustworthy." Indeed, Metternich himself in his own Memoirs often

follows a good deal in the line of Bourrienne: among many formal attacks,

every now and then he lapses into half involuntary and indirect praise of

his great antagonist, especially where he compares the men he had to deal

with in aftertimes with his former rapid and talented interlocutor. To

some even among the Bonapartists, Bourrienne was not altogether

distasteful. Lucien Bonaparte, remarking that the time in which

Bourrienne treated with Napoleon as equal with equal did not last long

enough for the secretary, says he has taken a little revenge in his

Memoirs, just as a lover, after a break with his mistress, reveals all

her defects. But Lucien considers that Bourrienne gives us a good enough

  • volume [´vɔlju:m, ´vɑljəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.卷;书籍;体积;容量   (初中英语单词)
  • sufficiently [sə´fiʃəntli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.充分地,足够地   (初中英语单词)
  • anxious [´æŋkʃəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.担忧的;渴望的   (初中英语单词)
  • faculty [´fækəlti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.才干;天赋;院,系   (初中英语单词)
  • extraordinary [ik´strɔ:dinəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.非常的;额外的   (初中英语单词)
  • character [´kæriktə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.特性;性质;人物;字   (初中英语单词)
  • extent [ik´stent] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.长度;程度;范围   (初中英语单词)
  • enterprise [´entəpraiz] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.企业;雄心;胆识   (初中英语单词)
  • excitement [ik´saitmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.兴奋;骚动;煽动   (初中英语单词)
  • amusement [ə´mju:zmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.娱乐;文娱设施   (初中英语单词)
  • temper [´tempə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.韧度 v.锻炼;调和   (初中英语单词)
  • brilliant [´briliənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.灿烂的;杰出的   (初中英语单词)
  • career [kə´riə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.经历;生涯;职业   (初中英语单词)
  • writing [´raitiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.书写;写作;书法   (初中英语单词)
  • satisfactory [,sætis´fæktəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.令人满意的   (初中英语单词)
  • administration [əd,minis´treiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.管理(事务等);经营   (初中英语单词)
  • valuable [´væljuəbəl, -jubəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有价值的,贵重的   (初中英语单词)
  • emperor [´empərə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.皇帝   (初中英语单词)
  • intimate [´intimit] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.亲密的 n.知己   (初中英语单词)
  • italian [i´tæliən] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.意大利 n.意大利人   (初中英语单词)
  • compound [kəm´paund] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&a.混合(的) v.合成   (初中英语单词)
  • minister [´ministə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.部长;大臣 v.伺候   (初中英语单词)
  • contact [´kɔntækt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.接触;联系 v.联络   (初中英语单词)
  • properly [´prɔpəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.适当地;严格地   (初中英语单词)
  • partly [´pɑ:tli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.部分地;不完全地   (初中英语单词)
  • poison [´pɔizən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.毒物 v.毒害 a.有毒的   (初中英语单词)
  • indian [´indiən] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.印度的 n.印度人   (初中英语单词)
  • companion [kəm´pæniən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.同伴;同事;伴侣   (初中英语单词)
  • schoolmate [´sku:lmeit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.同学   (初中英语单词)
  • beaten [´bi:tn] 移动到这儿单词发声  beat 的过去分词   (初中英语单词)
  • talent [´tælənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.天才;才干;天资   (初中英语单词)
  • abundance [ə´bʌndəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.丰富,充裕   (初中英语单词)
  • formal [´fɔ:məl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.正式的;外表的   (初中英语单词)
  • cabinet [´kæbinit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.橱,柜;内阁   (初中英语单词)
  • assistance [ə´sistəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.协作;援助;帮助   (初中英语单词)
  • disgrace [dis´greis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.耻辱 vt.玷辱;贬黜   (初中英语单词)
  • objection [əb´dʒekʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.反对;异议;缺点   (初中英语单词)
  • dislike [dis´laik] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.&n.不喜爱,厌恶   (初中英语单词)
  • belief [bi´li:f] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.相信;信仰,信条   (初中英语单词)
  • interview [´intəvju:] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&vt.接见;会见;交谈   (初中英语单词)
  • commerce [´kɔmə:s] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.商业;社交;交流   (初中英语单词)
  • system [´sistəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.系统,体系,制度   (初中英语单词)
  • berlin [bə:´lin] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.柏林   (初中英语单词)
  • ashamed [ə´ʃeimd] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.惭愧;不好意思   (初中英语单词)
  • phrase [freiz] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.短语;词组;措词   (初中英语单词)
  • devotion [di´vəuʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.献身;忠诚;热爱   (初中英语单词)
  • connection [kə´nekʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.联系;关系;联运   (初中英语单词)
  • mysterious [mi´stiəriəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.神秘的;难以理解的   (初中英语单词)
  • expedition [,ekspi´diʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.远征;探险;迅速   (初中英语单词)
  • arrest [ə´rest] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.逮捕 n.逮捕;停止   (初中英语单词)
  • continent [´kɔntinənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.大陆,陆地   (初中英语单词)
  • invest [in´vest] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.投资;授予   (初中英语单词)
  • attribute [ə´tribju:t] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.象征 vt.归因于   (初中英语单词)
  • wicked [´wikid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.邪恶的;不道德的   (初中英语单词)
  • monster [´mɔnstə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.怪物 a.大得异常的   (初中英语单词)
  • reading [´ri:diŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.(阅)读;朗读;读物   (初中英语单词)
  • talented [´tæləntid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.天才的;能干的   (初中英语单词)
  • revenge [ri´vendʒ] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.报复 n.报仇;报复   (初中英语单词)
  • mistress [´mistris] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.女主人;情妇;女能手   (初中英语单词)
  • napoleon [nə´pəuljən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.拿破仑   (高中英语单词)
  • edition [i´diʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.版本;很相似的   (高中英语单词)
  • caesar [´si:zə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.凯撒;暴君;独裁者   (高中英语单词)
  • resemblance [ri´zembləns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.类似;肖像;外表   (高中英语单词)
  • boyhood [´bɔihud] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.少年时代(期)   (高中英语单词)
  • correspondence [,kɔri´spɔndəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.通信;符合;相当   (高中英语单词)
  • successor [sək´sesə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.继承人,接班人   (高中英语单词)
  • peculiarity [pi,kju:li´æriti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.特色;特性;怪癖   (高中英语单词)
  • unique [ju:´ni:k] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.唯一的 n.独一无二   (高中英语单词)
  • caution [´kɔ:ʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&vt.小心;告诫;警告   (高中英语单词)
  • jealousy [´dʒeləsi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.妒忌;猜忌   (高中英语单词)
  • inferior [in´fiəriə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.下级的 n.下级;晚辈   (高中英语单词)
  • hanging [´hæŋiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.绞刑 a.悬挂着的   (高中英语单词)
  • wisely [´waizli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.明智地,聪明地   (高中英语单词)
  • haughty [´hɔ:ti] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.傲慢的,高傲的   (高中英语单词)
  • assumption [ə´sʌmpʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.掌握;担任;假定   (高中英语单词)
  • predict [pri´dikt] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.预言;预告;预示   (高中英语单词)
  • greatness [´greitnis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.巨大;高尚;卓越   (高中英语单词)
  • consul [´kɔnsəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.领事;执政官   (高中英语单词)
  • equality [i´kwɔliti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.同等,平等   (高中英语单词)
  • temporary [´tempərəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.暂时的 n.临时工   (高中英语单词)
  • continental [,kɔnti´nentl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.大陆的,大陆性的   (高中英语单词)
  • flattering [´flætəriŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.谄媚的;奉承的   (高中英语单词)
  • apparently [ə´pærəntli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.显然,表面上地   (高中英语单词)
  • literally [´litərəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.逐字地;实际上   (高中英语单词)
  • amusing [ə´mju:ziŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有趣的   (高中英语单词)
  • reputation [repju´teiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.名誉;名声;信誉   (英语四级单词)
  • peculiarly [pi´kju:liəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.特有地;古怪地   (英语四级单词)
  • justly [´dʒʌstli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.公正地,正当地   (英语四级单词)
  • intimacy [´intiməsi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.亲密;熟悉;秘密   (英语四级单词)
  • devoted [di´vəutid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.献身…的,忠实的   (英语四级单词)
  • mutiny [´mju:tini] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.兵变;反抗 vi.叛变   (英语四级单词)
  • massacre [´mæsəkə] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.&n.大屠杀;残杀   (英语四级单词)
  • robbery [´rɔbəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.抢劫(案);盗取   (英语四级单词)
  • eventually [i´ventʃuəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.最后,终于   (英语四级单词)
  • arisen [ə´rizn] 移动到这儿单词发声  arise的过去分词   (英语四级单词)
  • mainland [´meinlənd] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.大陆;本土   (英语四级单词)
  • unwilling [ʌn´wiliŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不愿意的;不情愿的   (英语四级单词)
  • delighted [di´laitid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.高兴的;喜欢的   (英语四级单词)
  • policy [´pɔlisi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.政策;权谋;保险单   (英语四级单词)
  • monarchy [´mɔnəki] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.君主政治;君主国   (英语四级单词)
  • consolation [,kɔnsə´leiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.安慰,慰问   (英语四级单词)
  • authentic [ɔ:´θentik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.真实的;可靠的   (英语四级单词)
  • indirect [,indi´rekt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.间接的;迂回的   (英语四级单词)
  • antagonist [æn´tægənist] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.敌手,反对者,对手   (英语四级单词)
  • biographer [bai´ɔgrəfə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.传记作家   (英语六级单词)
  • impartial [im´pɑ:ʃəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.公平的,无私的   (英语六级单词)
  • graphic [´græfik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.图表的;生动的   (英语六级单词)
  • copious [´kəupiəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.丰富的;冗长的   (英语六级单词)
  • invaluable [in´væljuəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.无价的,非常重要的   (英语六级单词)
  • assured [ə´ʃuəd] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.确实的 n.被保险人   (英语六级单词)
  • familiarity [fə,mili´æriti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.熟悉;新近;随便   (英语六级单词)
  • gratification [,grætifi´keiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.满意;喜悦   (英语六级单词)
  • hamburg [´hæmbə:g] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.汉堡   (英语六级单词)
  • scurry [´skʌri] 移动到这儿单词发声  vi.&n.急赶;奔跑   (英语六级单词)
  • extraordinarily [ik´strɔ:dənərili] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.非常,特别地   (英语六级单词)
  • involuntary [in´vɔləntəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.无意识的;非自愿的   (英语六级单词)

  • 上传人 欢乐鱼 分享于 2017-06-26 18:04:19
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