With Introduction and Notes















_Adonais_ is the first writing by Shelley which has been included in the

_Clarendon Press Series_. It is a poem of convenient length for such a

purpose, being neither short nor decidedly long; and--leaving out of

count some of the short poems--is the one by this author which

approaches nearest to being 'popular.' It is elevated in sentiment,

classical in form,--in substance, biographical in relation to Keats, and

in some minor degree autobiographical for Shelley himself. On these

grounds it claimed a reasonablepreference over all his other poems, for

the present method of treatment; although some students of Shelley,

myself included, might be disposed to maintain that, in point of

absolute intrinsic beauty and achievement, and of the qualities most

especially characteristic of its author, it is not superior, or indeed

is but barely equal, to some of his other compositions. To take, for

instance, two poems not very different in length from _Adonais_--_The

Witch of Atlas_ is more original, and _Epipsychidion_ more abstract in


I have endeavoured to present in my introductory matter a comprehensive

account of all particulars relevant to _Adonais_ itself, and to Keats as

its subject, and Shelley as its author. The accounts here given of both

these great poets are of course meagre, but I assume them to be not

insufficient for our immediate and restricted purpose. There are many

other books which the reader can profitably consult as to the life and

works of Shelley; and three or four (at least) as to the life and works

of Keats. My concluding notes are, I suppose, ample in scale: if they

are excessive, that is an involuntary error on my part. My aim in them

has been to illustrate and elucidate the poem in its details, yet

without travelling far afield in search of remote analogies or

discursive comment--my wish being rather to 'stick to my text': wherever

a difficulty presents itself, I have essayed to define it, and clear it

up--but not always to my own satisfaction. I have seldom had to discuss

the opinions of previous writers on the same points, for the simple

reason that of detailed criticism of _Adonais_, apart from merely

textual memoranda, there is next to none.

It has appeared to me to be part of my duty to point out here and there,

but by no means frequently, some special beauty in the poem;

occasionally also something which seems to me defective or faulty. I am

aware that this latter is an invidious office, which naturally exposes

one to an imputation, from some quarters, of obtuseness, and, from

others, of presumption; none the less I have expressed myself with the

frankness which, according to my own view, belongs to the essence of

such a task as is here undertaken. _Adonais_ is a composition which has

retorted beforehand upon its actual or possible detractors. In the poem

itself, and in the prefatory matter adjoined to it, Shelley takes

critics very severely to task: but criticism has its discerning and

temperate, as well as its 'stupid and malignant' phases.


_July, 1890._


The life of Percy Bysshe Shelley is one which has given rise to a great

deal of controversy, and which cannot, for a long time to come, fail to

be regarded with very diverse sentiments. His extreme opinions on

questions of religion and morals, and the great latitude which he

allowed himself in acting according to his own opinions, however widely

they might depart from the law of the land and of society, could not but

produce this result. In his own time he was generally accounted an

outrageous and shameful offender. At the present date many persons

entertain essentially the same view, although softened by lapse of

years, and by respect for his standing as a poet: others regard him as a

conspicuous reformer. Some take a medium course, and consider him to

have been sincere, and so far laudable; but rash and reckless of

consequences, and so far censurable. His poetry also has been subject to

very different constructions. During his lifetime it obtained little

notice save for purposes of disparagement and denunciation. Now it is

viewed with extremeenthusiasm by many, and is generally admitted to

hold a permanent rank in English literature, though faulty (as some

opine) through vague idealism and want of backbone. These are all points

on which I shall here offer no personal opinion. I shall confine myself

to tracing the chief outlines of Shelley's life, and (very briefly) the

sequence of his literary work.

Percy Bysshe Shelley came of a junior and comparatively undistinguished

branch of a very old and noted family. His branch was termed the

Worminghurst Shelleys; and it is only quite lately[1] that the

affiliation of this branch to the more eminent and senior stock of the

Michelgrove Shelleys has passed from the condition of a probable and

obvious surmise into that of an established fact. The family traces up

to Sir William Shelley, Judge of the Common Pleas under Henry VII,

thence to a Member of Parliament in 1415, and to the reign of Edward I,

or even to the Norman Conquest. The Worminghurst Shelleys start with

Henry Shelley, who died in 1623. It will be sufficient here to begin

with the poet's grandfather, Bysshe Shelley. He was born at Christ

Church, Newark, North America, and raised to a noticeable height,

chiefly by two wealthy marriages, the fortunes of the junior branch.

Handsome, keen-minded, and adventurous, he eloped with Mary Catherine,

heiress of the Rev. Theobald Michell, of Horsham; after her death he

eloped with Elizabeth Jane, heiress of Mr. Perry, of Penshurst. By this

second wife he had a family, now represented, by the Baron de l'Isle and

Dudley: by his first wife he had (besides a daughter) a son Timothy, who

was the poet's father, and who became in due course Sir Timothy Shelley,

Bart., M.P. His baronetcy was inherited from his father Bysshe--on whom

it had been conferred, in 1806, chiefly through the interest of the Duke

of Norfolk, the head of the Whig party in the county of Sussex, to whose

politics the new baronet had adhered.

Mr. Timothy Shelley was a very ordinary country gentleman in essentials,

and a rather eccentric one in some details. He was settled at Field

Place, near Horsham, Sussex, and married Elizabeth, daughter of Charles

Pilfold, of Effingham, Surrey; she was a beauty, and a woman of good

abilities, but without any literary turn. Their first child was the

poet, Percy Bysshe, born at Field Place on Aug. 4, 1792: four daughters

also grew up, and a younger son, John: the eldest son of John is now the

Baronet, having succeeded, in 1889, Sir Percy Florence Shelley, the

poet's only surviving son. No one has managed to discover in the parents

of Percy Bysshe any qualities furnishing the prototype or the nucleus of

his poetical genius, or of the very exceptional cast of mind and

character which he developed in other directions. The parents were

commonplace: if we go back to the grandfather, Sir Bysshe, we encounter

a man who was certainly not commonplace, but who seems to have been

devoid of either poetical or humanitarian fervour. He figures as intent

upon his worldly interests, accumulating a massive fortune, and spending

lavishly upon the building of Castle Goring; in his old age, penurious,

unsocial, and almost churlish in his habits. His passion was to domineer

and carry his point; of this the poet may have inherited something. His

ideal of success was wealth and worldly position, things to which the

poet was, on the contrary, abnormally indifferent.

Shelley's schooling began at six years of age, when he was placed under

the Rev. Mr. Edwards, at Warnham. At ten he went to Sion House School,

Brentford, of which the Principal was Dr. Greenlaw, the pupils being

mostly sons of local tradesmen. In July, 1804, he proceeded to Eton,

where Dr. Goodall was the Head Master, succeeded, just towards the end

of Shelley's stay, by the far severer Dr. Keate. Shelley was shy,

sensitive, and of susceptible fancy: at Eton we first find him

insubordinate as well. He steadily resisted the fagging-system, learned

more as he chose than as his masters dictated, and was known as 'Mad

Shelley,' and 'Shelley the Atheist.' It has sometimes been said that an

Eton boy, if rebellious, was termed 'Atheist,' and that the designation,

as applied to Shelley, meant no more than that. I do not feel satisfied

that this is true at all; at any rate it seems to me probable that

Shelley, who constantly called himself an atheist in after-life,

received the epithet at Eton for some cause more apposite than

disaffection to school-authority.

He finally left Eton in July, 1810. He had already been entered in

University College, Oxford, in April of that year, and he commenced

residence there in October. His one very intimate friend in Oxford was

Thomas Jefferson Hogg, a student from the county of Durham. Hogg was

not, like Shelley, an enthusiast eager to learn new truths, and to apply

them; but he was a youth appreciative of classical and other literature,

and little or not at all less disposed than Percy to disregard all

prescription in religious dogma. By demeanour and act they both courted

academic censure, and they got it in its extremest form. Shelley wrote,

probably with some co-operation from Hogg, and he published anonymously

in Oxford, a little pamphlet called _The Necessity of Atheism_; he

projected sending it round broadcast as an invitation or challenge to

discussion. This small pamphlet--it is scarcely more than a

flysheet--hardly amounts to saying that Atheism is irrefragably true,

and Theism therefore false; but it propounds that the existence of a God

cannot be proved by reason, nor yet by testimony; that a direct

revelation made to an individual would alone be adequate ground for

convincing that individual; and that the persons to whom such a

revelation is not accorded are in consequence warranted in remaining

unconvinced. The College authorities got wind of the pamphlet, and found

reason for regarding Shelley as its author, and on March 25, 1811, they

summoned him to appear. He was required to say whether he had written it

or not. To this demand he refused an answer, and was then expelled by a

written sentence, ready drawn up. With Hogg the like process was

repeated. Their offence, as entered on the College records, was that of

'contumaciously refusing to answer questions,' and 'repeatedly declining

to disavow' the authorship of the work. In strictness therefore they

were expelled, not for being proclaimed atheists, but for defying

academic authority, which required to be satisfied as to that question.

Shortly before this disaster an engagement between Shelley and his first

cousin on the mother's side, Miss Harriet Grove, had come to an end,

owing to the alarm excited by the youth's sceptical opinions.

Settling in lodgings in London, and parting from Hogg, who went to York

to study conveyancing, Percy pretty soon found a substitute for Harriet

Grove in Harriet Westbrook, a girl of fifteen, schoolfellow of two of

his sisters at Clapham. She was exceedingly pretty, daughter of a

retired hotel-keeper in easy circumstances. Shelley wanted to talk both

her and his sisters out of Christianity; and he cultivated the

acquaintance of herself and of her much less juvenile sister Eliza,

calling from time to time at their father's house in Chapel Street,

Grosvenor Square. Harriet fell in love with him: besides, he was a

highly eligible _parti_, being a prospective baronet, absolute heir to a

very considerable estate, and contingent heir (if he had assented to a

proposal of entail, to which however he never did assent, professing

conscientious objections) to another estate still larger. Shelley was

not in love with Harriet; but he liked her, and was willing to do

anything he could to further her wishes and plans. Mr. Timothy Shelley,

after a while, pardoned his son's misadventure at Oxford, and made him a

moderate allowance of L200 a-year. Percy then visited a cousin in Wales,

a member of the Grove family. He was recalled to London by Harriet

Westbrook, who protested against a project of sending her back to

school. He counselled resistance. She replied in July 1811 (to quote a

contemporary letter from Shelley to Hogg), 'that resistance was useless,

but that she would fly with me, and threw herself upon my protection.'

This was clearly a rather decided step upon the damsel's part: we may

form our own conclusions whether she was willing to unite with Percy

without the bond of marriage; or whether she confidently calculated upon

inducing him to marry her, her family being kept in the dark; or whether

the whole affair was a family manoeuvre for forcing on an engagement and

a wedding. Shelley returned to London, and had various colloquies with

Harriet: in due course he eloped with her to Edinburgh, and there on

28th August he married her. His age was then just nineteen, and hers

sixteen. Shelley, who was a profoundbeliever in William Godwin's

_Political Justice_, rejected the institution of marriage as being

fundamentally irrational and wrongful. But he saw that he could not in

this instance apply his own pet theories without involving in discredit

and discomfort the woman whose love had been bestowed upon him. Either

his opinion or her happiness must be sacrificed to what he deemed a

prejudice of society: he decided rather to sacrifice the former.

For two years, or up to an advanced date in 1813, the married life of

Shelley and Harriet appears to have been a happy one, so far as their

mutual relation was concerned; though rambling and scrambling,

restricted by mediocrity of income (L400 a year, made up between the two

fathers), and pestered by the continual, and to Percy at last very

offensive, presence of Miss Westbrook as an inmate of the house. They

lived in York, Keswick in Cumberland, Dublin (which Shelley visited as

an express advocate of Catholic emancipation and repeal of the Union),

Nantgwillt in Radnorshire, Lynmouth in Devonshire, Tanyrallt in

Carnarvonshire, London, Bracknell in Berkshire: Ireland and Edinburgh

were also revisited. Various strange adventures befell; the oddest of

all being an alleged attempt at assassination at Tanyrallt. Shelley

asserted it, others disbelieved it: after much disputation the

biographer supposes that, if not an imposture, it was a romance, and, if

not a romance, at least a hallucination,--Shelley, besides being wild in

talk and wild in fancy, being by this time much addicted to

laudanum-dosing. In June 1813 Harriet gave birth, in London, to her

first child, Ianthe Eliza (she married a Mr. Esdaile, and died in 1876).

About the same time Shelley brought out his earliest work of importance,

the poem of _Queen Mab_: its speculative audacities were too extreme for

publication, so it was only privately printed.

Amiable and accommodating at first, and neither ill-educated nor stupid,

Harriet did not improve in tone as she advanced in womanhood. Her

sympathy or tolerance for her husband's ideals and vagaries flagged;

when they differed she gave him the cold shoulder; she wanted

luxuries--such as a carriage of her own--which he neither cared for nor

could properly afford. He even said--and one can hardly accuse him of

saying it insincerely--that she had been unfaithful to him: this however

remains quite unproved, and may have been a delusion. He sought the

society of the philosopher Godwin, then settled as a bookseller in

Skinner Street, Holborn. Godwin's household at this time consisted of

his second wife, who had been a Mrs. Clairmont; Mary, his daughter by

  • introduction [,intrə´dʌkʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.介绍;引言;引导   (初中英语单词)
  • argument [´ɑ:gjumənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.辩论;争论;论证   (初中英语单词)
  • writing [´raitiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.书写;写作;书法   (初中英语单词)
  • convenient [kən´vi:niənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.方便的   (初中英语单词)
  • reasonable [´rizənəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.合理的;有理智的   (初中英语单词)
  • treatment [´tri:tmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.待遇;对待;治疗   (初中英语单词)
  • maintain [mein´tein] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.维持;保持;继续   (初中英语单词)
  • achievement [ə´tʃi:vmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.完成;成就,成绩   (初中英语单词)
  • barely [´beəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.公开地;仅仅   (初中英语单词)
  • consult [kən´sʌlt] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.商量;磋商;请教   (初中英语单词)
  • illustrate [´iləstreit] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.加插图;举例说明   (初中英语单词)
  • remote [ri´məut] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.遥远的;偏僻的   (初中英语单词)
  • satisfaction [,sætis´fækʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.满意;满足   (初中英语单词)
  • previous [´pri:viəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.先,前,以前的   (初中英语单词)
  • criticism [´kritisizəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.批评;评论(文)   (初中英语单词)
  • actual [´æktʃuəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.现实的;实际的   (初中英语单词)
  • extreme [ik´stri:m] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.尽头的 n.极端   (初中英语单词)
  • acting [´æktiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.代理的 n.演戏   (初中英语单词)
  • standing [´stændiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.持续 a.直立的   (初中英语单词)
  • medium [´mi:diəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.中间;平均 a.中等的   (初中英语单词)
  • sincere [sin´siə] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.真挚的;直率的   (初中英语单词)
  • poetry [´pəuitri] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.诗;诗意   (初中英语单词)
  • enthusiasm [in´θju:ziæzəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.热心;狂热;爱好   (初中英语单词)
  • permanent [´pə:mənənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.永久的;不变的   (初中英语单词)
  • literature [´litərətʃə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.文学;文献;著作   (初中英语单词)
  • confine [kən´fain] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.限制 n.边界;境界   (初中英语单词)
  • literary [´litərəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.文学(上)的   (初中英语单词)
  • junior [´dʒu:niə] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.年少的 n.年少者   (初中英语单词)
  • comparatively [kəm´pærətivli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.比较地;比较上   (初中英语单词)
  • probable [´prɔbəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.大概的n.很可能的事   (初中英语单词)
  • parliament [´pɑ:ləmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.议(国)会   (初中英语单词)
  • conquest [´kɔŋkwest] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.赢得;获得;占领地   (初中英语单词)
  • grandfather [´grænd,fɑ:ðə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.(外)祖父;祖先   (初中英语单词)
  • wealthy [´welθi] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.富有的;丰富的   (初中英语单词)
  • chiefly [´tʃi:fli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.主要地;尤其   (初中英语单词)
  • genius [´dʒi:niəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.天才(人物);天赋   (初中英语单词)
  • passion [´pæʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.激情;激怒;恋爱   (初中英语单词)
  • wealth [welθ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.财富,财产   (初中英语单词)
  • contrary [´kɔntrəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.相反的 n.相反   (初中英语单词)
  • principal [´prinsəpəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.主要的 n.负责人   (初中英语单词)
  • steadily [´stedili] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.坚定地;不断地   (初中英语单词)
  • constantly [´kɔnstəntli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.经常地;不断地   (初中英语单词)
  • intimate [´intimit] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.亲密的 n.知己   (初中英语单词)
  • invitation [,invi´teiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.邀请;请帖;吸引   (初中英语单词)
  • challenge [´tʃælindʒ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&vt.向….挑战;怀疑   (初中英语单词)
  • therefore [´ðeəfɔ:] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.&conj.因此;所以   (初中英语单词)
  • existence [ig´zistəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.存在;生存;生活   (初中英语单词)
  • adequate [´ædikwit] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.足够的;适当的   (初中英语单词)
  • consequence [´kɔnsikwəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.结果;后果;推断   (初中英语单词)
  • sentence [´sentəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.判决 vt.宣判;处刑   (初中英语单词)
  • disaster [di´zɑ:stə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.灾难,不幸   (初中英语单词)
  • engagement [in´geidʒmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.婚约;雇用;受聘   (初中英语单词)
  • substitute [´sʌbstitju:t] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.代理人 v.代替,取代   (初中英语单词)
  • schoolfellow [´sku:l,feləu] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.同学   (初中英语单词)
  • chapel [´tʃæpəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.小教堂   (初中英语单词)
  • absolute [´æbsəlu:t] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.绝对的 n.绝对   (初中英语单词)
  • considerable [kən´sidərəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.重要的;值得重视   (初中英语单词)
  • estate [i´steit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.财产;庄园;等级   (初中英语单词)
  • willing [´wiliŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.情愿的,乐意的   (初中英语单词)
  • allowance [ə´lauəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.津贴;配给量;考虑   (初中英语单词)
  • project [prə´dʒekt, ´prɔdʒekt] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.设计;投掷 n.计划   (初中英语单词)
  • resistance [ri´zistəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.抵抗;抵制;耐力   (初中英语单词)
  • wedding [´wediŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.婚礼,结婚   (初中英语单词)
  • institution [,insti´tju:ʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.建立;制定;制度   (初中英语单词)
  • instance [´instəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.例子,实例,例证   (初中英语单词)
  • advanced [əd´vɑ:nst] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.先进的;高级的   (初中英语单词)
  • income [´inkʌm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.收入,所得   (初中英语单词)
  • advocate [´ædvəkit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.辩护者   (初中英语单词)
  • catholic [´kæθəlik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.天主教 n.天主教徒   (初中英语单词)
  • romance [rəu´mæns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.中世纪骑士小说   (初中英语单词)
  • carriage [´kæridʒ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.马车;客车;货运   (初中英语单词)
  • properly [´prɔpəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.适当地;严格地   (初中英语单词)
  • accuse [ə´kju:z] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.谴责;控告,告发   (初中英语单词)
  • composition [,kɔmpə´ziʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.写作;作曲;作品   (高中英语单词)
  • decidedly [di´saididli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.坚决地,果断地   (高中英语单词)
  • preference [´prefərəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.优先选择;偏爱(物)   (高中英语单词)
  • characteristic [,kæriktə´ristik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.特有的 n.特性   (高中英语单词)
  • relevant [´relivənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有关的;中肯的   (高中英语单词)
  • excessive [ik´sesiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.过分的;极端的   (高中英语单词)
  • define [di´fain] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.解释;说明;限定   (高中英语单词)
  • presumption [pri´zʌmpʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.推测;专横;冒昧   (高中英语单词)
  • severely [si´viəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.剧烈地;严格地   (高中英语单词)
  • controversy [´kɔntrəvə:si] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.争论;争吵   (高中英语单词)
  • latitude [´lætitju:d] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.纬度;地区   (高中英语单词)
  • reckless [´rekləs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不注意的;鲁莽的   (高中英语单词)
  • lifetime [´laiftaim] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.一生,终生,寿命   (高中英语单词)
  • eminent [´eminənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.卓越的;杰出的   (高中英语单词)
  • senior [´si:niə] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.年长的 n.前辈   (高中英语单词)
  • eldest [´eldist] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.最年长的   (高中英语单词)
  • massive [´mæsiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.厚实的;魁伟的   (高中英语单词)
  • oxford [´ɔksfəd] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.牛津   (高中英语单词)
  • broadcast [´brɔ:dkɑ:st] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.&n.散布 a.广播的   (高中英语单词)
  • saying [´seiŋ, ´sei-iŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.言语;言论;格言   (高中英语单词)
  • testimony [´testiməni] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.证明;证据;表明   (高中英语单词)
  • regarding [ri´gɑ:diŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  prep.关于   (高中英语单词)
  • exceedingly [ik´si:diŋli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.非常地,极度地   (高中英语单词)
  • christianity [,kristi´æniti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.基督教;基督精神   (高中英语单词)
  • assent [ə´sent] 移动到这儿单词发声  vi.&n.同意,赞成   (高中英语单词)
  • decided [di´saidid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.明显的;决定的   (高中英语单词)
  • profound [prə´faund] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.深奥的;渊博的   (高中英语单词)
  • concerned [kən´sə:nd] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有关的;担心的   (高中英语单词)
  • continual [kən´tinjuəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不断的,频繁的   (高中英语单词)
  • repeal [ri´pi:l] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.&n.废除;撤销;放弃   (高中英语单词)
  • ireland [´aiələnd] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.爱尔兰   (高中英语单词)
  • philosopher [fi´lɔsəfə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.哲学家;思想家;哲人   (高中英语单词)
  • abstract [´æbstrækt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.抽象的 n.提要   (英语四级单词)
  • defective [di´fektiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有缺陷的;有瑕疵的   (英语四级单词)
  • essence [´esəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.本质;要素;精华   (英语四级单词)
  • beforehand [bi´fɔ:hænd] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.事先;提前   (英语四级单词)
  • shameful [´ʃeimfəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.可耻的;猥亵的   (英语四级单词)
  • offender [ə´fendə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.冒犯者;罪犯   (英语四级单词)
  • essentially [i´senʃəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.本质上,基本上   (英语四级单词)
  • backbone [´bækbəun] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.脊骨;骨干;支柱   (英语四级单词)
  • noticeable [´nəutisəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.显著的;值得注意的   (英语四级单词)
  • adventurous [əd´ventʃərəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.冒险的;惊险的   (英语四级单词)
  • florence [´flɔrəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.佛罗伦萨   (英语四级单词)
  • nucleus [´nju:kliəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.核(心);细胞核   (英语四级单词)
  • exceptional [ik´sepʃənəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.异常的,特别的   (英语四级单词)
  • commonplace [´kɔmənpleis] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.平凡的;常见的   (英语四级单词)
  • worldly [´wə:ldli] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.现世的;世俗的   (英语四级单词)
  • classical [´klæsikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.经典的;传统的   (英语四级单词)
  • disregard [,disri´gɑ:d] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.&n.不顾;漠视   (英语四级单词)
  • demeanour [di´mi:nə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.行为;举止;态度   (英语四级单词)
  • censure [´senʃə] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.&n.责备;非难   (英语四级单词)
  • pamphlet [´pæmflit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.小册子   (英语四级单词)
  • parting [´pɑ:tiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.&n.分离(的)   (英语四级单词)
  • prospective [prə´spektiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.预期的;未来的   (英语四级单词)
  • edinburgh [´edinbərə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.爱丁堡   (英语四级单词)
  • believer [bi´li:və] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.信徒   (英语四级单词)
  • befell [bi´fel] 移动到这儿单词发声  befall的过去式   (英语四级单词)
  • involuntary [in´vɔləntəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.无意识的;非自愿的   (英语六级单词)
  • faulty [´fɔ:lti] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有毛病的;有故障的   (英语六级单词)
  • diverse [dai´və:s] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.完全不同的   (英语六级单词)
  • reformer [ri´fɔ:mə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.改革者;革新者   (英语六级单词)
  • idealism [ai´diəlizəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.唯心主义;理想主义   (英语六级单词)
  • surmise [´sə:maiz] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&a.推测(的);猜疑(的)   (英语六级单词)
  • eccentric [ik´sentrik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.古怪的;离心的   (英语六级单词)
  • poetical [pəu´etikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.理想化了的   (英语六级单词)
  • susceptible [sə´septəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.敏感的;易受影响的   (英语六级单词)
  • rebellious [ri´beljəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.造反的;反叛的   (英语六级单词)
  • applied [ə´plaid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.实用的,应用的   (英语六级单词)
  • enthusiast [in´θju:ziæst] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.热衷者,渴慕者   (英语六级单词)
  • appreciative [ə´pri:ʃətiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.欣赏的;感激的   (英语六级单词)
  • cultivated [´kʌltiveitid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.在耕作的;有教养的   (英语六级单词)
  • juvenile [´dʒu:vənail] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.少年的 n.青少年   (英语六级单词)
  • entail [in´teil] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.限定(继承人);需要   (英语六级单词)
  • confidently [´kɔnfidəntli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.有信心地;自信地   (英语六级单词)
  • manoeuvre [mə´nu:və] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.=maneuver   (英语六级单词)
  • august [ɔ:´gʌst] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.尊严的;威严的   (英语六级单词)
  • discomfort [dis´kʌmfət] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.不适;不安;困难   (英语六级单词)
  • inmate [´inmeit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.(医院,监狱)同宿者   (英语六级单词)
  • dublin [´dʌblin] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.都柏林   (英语六级单词)
  • emancipation [i,mænsi´peiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.解放,翻身   (英语六级单词)
  • assassination [ə,sæsi´neiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.暗杀;暗杀事件   (英语六级单词)
  • speculative [´spekjulətiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.臆测的;投机的   (英语六级单词)
  • privately [´praivitli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.秘密,一个人   (英语六级单词)
  • delusion [di´lu:ʒən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.欺骗;幻觉;迷惑   (英语六级单词)

  • 上传人 欢乐鱼 分享于 2017-06-26 18:04:09
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