酷兔英语



"MAKERS OF AMERICAN HISTORY" SERIES

GEORGE

WASHINGTON

By CALISTA McCABE COURTENAY

ILLUSTRATED BY

A. M. TURNER

AND

HARRIET KAUCHER

[Illustration: George Washington]

Copyright, 1917, by

SAM'L GABRIEL SONS & COMPANY

NEW YORK

CONTENTS

PAGE

CHAPTER I 5

Washington's Early Life--Appointed as Surveyor--First

Trip into the Wilderness--Entrusted with Message

to the French.

CHAPTER II 20

Washington Appointed a Member of Gen. Braddock's

Staff--French and Indian War--Washington Made

Commander of Virginia Forces--Causes of the American

Revolution--Washington a Member of the First Continental

Congress.

CHAPTER III 30

Beginning of the Revolution--Washington

Made Commander-in-Chief

of the Continental

Army--British Forced

to Leave Boston.

CHAPTER IV 40

Declaration of Independence

Signed--Battle

of Long Island--Battle

of White Plains--Washington

Crosses the Delaware

and Surprises the

Hessians at Trenton.

CHAPTER V 52

Recapture of Fort Ticonderoga

by Gen. Burgoyne--Battle

of Brandywine--Battle

of Germantown--Burgoyne's

Surrender

at Saratoga--Washington

at Valley Forge--Alliance with France.

CHAPTER VI 62

Battle of Monmouth--Patriots Receive Aid from France--Recapture

of Fort at Stony Point by Gen. Anthony

Wayne--Washington at Morristown--Surrender of

Charleston, S. C., to the British--Treason of Benedict

Arnold.

CHAPTER VII 73

Gen. Gates Defeated at Camden, S. C.--Battle of King's

Mountain--Washington Sends Aid to the South--Siege of

Yorktown--Surrender of Lord Cornwallis--Peace Treaty

Signed--Washington's Farewell to His Officers.

CHAPTER VIII 83

Washington Retires to Mount Vernon--Inaugurated as

First President of the United States--His Reelection--His

Death at Mount Vernon.

[Illustration: The Washington Monument]

LIST OF COLORED PLATES

Washington Leaving His Home _Frontispiece_

Washington Taking Command of the Army 20

Washington Crossing the Delaware 40

At Valley Forge 52

Washington Bidding Farewell to His Officers 73

Washington Welcomed in New York 83

[Illustration]

CHAPTER I

WASHINGTON'S EARLY LIFE--APPOINTED AS SURVEYOR--FIRST TRIP INTO THE

WILDERNESS--ENTRUSTED WITH MESSAGE TO THE FRENCH--1732-1754

[Illustration]

The twenty-second day of February is a national holiday in America

because, as everybody knows, it is the anniversary of George

Washington's birthday. All loyal Americans love and honor him, the

greatest man in the history of the Republic.

He was born in 1732, in Westmoreland County, Virginia, where the Potomac

River flowed past his father's farm. The farm-house, called "Wakefield,"

was burned, but the United States Government built a monument to mark

the place where it stood.

When "Wakefield" was destroyed, the family lived for a time in a home,

later called Mount Vernon, in Fairfax County. But the real boyhood home

of George Washington was a farm overlooking the Rappahannock River,

where his parents went when he was about eight years old. His father,

Augustine Washington, was a prosperous Virginia planter, and owned

several fine estates.

His mother's name was Mary Ball. She was a beautiful and sensible woman,

and a wise, firm and loving mother. She was his father's second wife and

there were two little lads already in the home, Lawrence and Augustine,

when she came to take the place of their mother who had died. Besides

these two half-brothers, George had two sisters and three brothers. The

two older sons were sent to England to school.

When George was eight years old, Lawrence returned home, having finished

his studies. A great affection at once sprang up between them. George

was a fine, manly little fellow whom any big brother could love, and he

looked up to Lawrence as a model. Before long, Lawrence went away to the

wars, serving under Admiral Vernon in the West Indies. His letters

filled George with admiration and he at once became commander-in-chief

of all the boys at school; they had parades and battles in imitation of

those Lawrence wrote about.

George's father died when he was twelve years old, but, fortunately, he

had a wise and careful mother. She taught him respect and obedience to

authority; justice and courtesy to others; loyalty to God and his

country. He had a high temper and a spirit of command, which she taught

him to control. A few times only in his life, when greatly provoked, did

his anger get beyond bounds. He loved and honored his mother deeply and

never forgot her teachings.

George and his younger brothers were educated in the country schools of

Virginia. George soon showed that he had a practical mind, caring little

for poetry and literature. He liked mathematics and wanted to know about

business and keeping accounts. He spent hours copying into a book the

exact forms of legal papers of all kinds. He was very neat and accurate

in his school work and learned the value of system and order. He never

began a thing without finishing it. He never did anything without

knowing the reason why. When he grew up, these fine principles and this

skill and accuracy, fitted him to take a great part in the history of

America.

All boys in those early days knew how to handle guns and manage horses.

George was an expert rider and loved the life of the woods. Being

exceptionally tall and strong, he was the championathlete at school. It

is said he could throw a stone farther than any man in Virginia.

Besides, he was so fair-minded that the boys always let him settle their

disputes and quarrels, knowing he would give every one a square deal. He

was the admired and trusted leader of them all.

In addition to his mother's care, George soon had the loving advice and

devoted friendship of his brother Lawrence. The war was over and that

splendid young gentleman had come home, and had married the charming

Anne Fairfax. His house, willed to him by his father, stood upon a hill

overlooking the beautiful Potomac River. To this lovely home, surrounded

by lawns and stately trees, Lawrence gave the name Mount Vernon, in

honor of the Admiral under whom he had served. George spent as much time

as possible here, where he met many persons of education and refinement.

While he was still a young boy, he wrote out for himself a long list of

rules of politeness and good behavior. He had observed that older people

do not like careless children, who forget the comforts and rights of

others. As a result, he was well liked by his brother's friends. Among

them were often military and naval officers, who told him stories of war

and adventure in foreign lands. When he was fourteen, one of these

officers would have appointed him midshipman in the British navy. He was

eager to go, but his mother needed his help in the management of their

property. So he continued two years more at school, studying

mathematics, engineering and surveying.

The country was then new and wild and there was much work for land

surveyors, whose business it was to measure off boundaries and describe

the positions of rivers, mountains and forests in a piece of land.

George learned to do this so well that by the time he was sixteen, he

was appointed public surveyor of his county. His chief work for the next

three years was on the vast tracts of land owned by Lord Fairfax, the

uncle of Lawrence Washington's wife. Though very young, George was a

great favorite with his lordship, who often took him fox hunting.

George was a bold and skillfulhorseman and rode well after the hounds.

[Illustration: Surveying]

The estate of Lord Fairfax, lying between the Potomac and Rappahannock

rivers and extending to the Alleghany Mountains, had been given to his

grandfather by King Charles II. These lands had never been settled nor

surveyed. People known as squatters were now moving in and taking

possession of the best places without permission. It became necessary to

have the land surveyed, and these settlers either driven out or made to

pay for certain definite parts. Lord Fairfax knew no one who could do

this so well as George Washington, for he was strong and fair enough to

deal wisely with the rough settlers. It was just what George wanted to

do, and he gladly accepted the offer.

In March, George set out for his first trip into the wilderness. He was

just sixteen years old, and it was his first big undertaking. George

Fairfax, Anne's brother, went with him. They crossed the mountains into

the lovely valley of the Shenandoah River. George's letters home were

full of the beauty of the country and the richness of the land. After

the first night, they found it more comfortable to sleep out under the

sky than in the poor, untidy lodgings of the settlers. They lived on

wild turkey and other game. They did their own cooking, roasting the

meat on sticks over the fire and eating it on broad, clean chips.

They met a party of war-painted Indians, and for the first time George

saw an Indian war dance. He studied the Indians carefully, for he wanted

to understand their ways so that he might know how to deal with them.

All through his life, he was kind and just in his treatment of these

people.

The work of surveying grants of land took them long distances among the

mountains and through the valleys. They traveled on horseback over the

woodland trails, for there were as yet no roads. Sometimes they found

the rivers so high that they crossed in canoes, their horses swimming.

George returned in a month, well pleased with his adventures, and Lord

Fairfax, delighted with his success, paid him well.

The cordial, friendly, free life of Virginia pleased Lord Fairfax more

than did the life in England. When he heard the account of the

fertility and beauty of the Shenandoah Valley, he decided to make his

home there. George laid out for him a fine farm of ten thousand acres.

The long stone farm-house, surrounded by servants' quarters, stables and

kennels, was located on a charming hillside. The place was called

"Greenway Court," and visitors always found a warm welcome, whether

Indians, woodsmen, or friends from the cities. Here George stayed when

on his surveying trips and during the hunting seasons.

Until he was nineteen, George spent his time at his work, or at home

with his mother or at Mount Vernon with Lawrence. The society of his

home and friends kept him from being spoiled by the roughness of the

wilderness. He was now six feet, two inches in height, with a fresh,

out-door complexion, blue eyes and brown hair. He had attractive

manners, he was careful about his dress, and presented a pleasing

appearance. Through all his life, George Washington was a true

gentleman.

He was so well paid for his work that he was able to buy several pieces

of fine land. His noble character gave him a high place among the

leading men of his colony. When he was nineteen, he was appointed one of

four military officers in the colonies, with the rank and pay of a

major, $750 a year--a considerable sum at that time.

Troubles had now arisen between the French and the English about the

ownership of lands west of the Alleghany Mountains. The Indians,

regarding the lands as theirs, took part in the disturbance. To protect

her frontiers, Virginia was divided into four districts, each under a

leader, whose duty it was to organize and drill militia. George at once

began to study military tactics and the arts of war. This was

interrupted by a trip to the West Indies with his beloved brother

Lawrence, who was ill of consumption.

They had hardly arrived there when George had a severe attack of

smallpox; though he soon got well, his face was scarred for life. He

wrote home about the beauty of the island, the wonderful trees and

fruits, and his social pleasures--dinners, parties and drives. For the

first time in his life, he attended a theater. He visited the courts of

justice and the fortifications; studied the laws, the soil and the

crops, learning all that could be learned about the island. The trip

resulted in no lasting good for Lawrence, however, for he died the

following summer, beloved and honored by the colonists.

George was only twenty, but Lawrence left Mount Vernon in his charge,

and the care of his wife and little daughter. The farm on the

Rappahannock had been given to George by their father. These two fine

estates, with the property he had bought for himself, made George a

large land owner when still a very young man. The care of all this

property and his military duties kept him busy.

During this time, the trouble with the French had grown more serious.

The English, having settled the eastern sea-coast, claimed the lands to

the west for their settlers. The French claimed the same lands by reason

of having explored them first. The rich country lying west of the

Alleghany Mountains, between the Great Lakes and the Ohio River, was

the region in question. The French were planning to hold it by a line of

forts from the Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, and near the eastern end of

Lake Erie, they had built two forts.

Governor Robert Dinwiddie of Virginia decided to send a message to the

French commandant, Saint Pierre, warning him to keep off English soil.

He needed someone brave and strong enough to travel in the winter,

through hundreds and hundreds of miles of forests and across mountains

and swift rivers; who knew how to take care of himself in the woods; who

could get along with the Indians, and meet the French officers with

courtesy and wisdom.

Of all the men in Virginia, the Governor chose George Washington, only

twenty-one years old, for this dangerous and important journey!

So, late in the autumn of 1753, Major Washington set out for the Ohio

River, accompanied by Christopher Gist, a brave and daring frontiersman,

and an Indian chief called Half King, as guides, together with


生词表:
  • indian [´indiən] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.印度的 n.印度人   (初中英语单词)
  • virginia [və´dʒinjə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.佛吉尼亚(州)   (初中英语单词)
  • valley [´væli] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.谷;河谷;流域   (初中英语单词)
  • farewell [feə´wel] 移动到这儿单词发声  int.再见 n.&a.告别   (初中英语单词)
  • holiday [´hɔlidi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.假日,假期,节日   (初中英语单词)
  • monument [´mɔnjumənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.纪念碑;古迹   (初中英语单词)
  • prosperous [´prɔspərəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.繁荣的;顺利的   (初中英语单词)
  • sensible [´sensəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.感觉得到的   (初中英语单词)
  • affection [ə´fekʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.友爱;慈爱   (初中英语单词)
  • sprang [spræŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  spring 的过去式   (初中英语单词)
  • admiral [´ædmərəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.海军上将,舰队司令   (初中英语单词)
  • admiration [,ædmə´reiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.赞赏,钦佩   (初中英语单词)
  • temper [´tempə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.韧度 v.锻炼;调和   (初中英语单词)
  • poetry [´pəuitri] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.诗;诗意   (初中英语单词)
  • literature [´litərətʃə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.文学;文献;著作   (初中英语单词)
  • system [´sistəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.系统,体系,制度   (初中英语单词)
  • expert [´ekspə:t] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&a.专家;内行   (初中英语单词)
  • champion [´tʃæmpiən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.冠军 vt.拥护   (初中英语单词)
  • knowing [´nəuiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.会意的,心照不宣的   (初中英语单词)
  • addition [ə´diʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.加;加法;附加物   (初中英语单词)
  • careless [´keəlis] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.粗心的;草率的   (初中英语单词)
  • management [´mænidʒmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.管理;处理;经营   (初中英语单词)
  • measure [´meʒə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.量度;范围 vt.测量   (初中英语单词)
  • estate [i´steit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.财产;庄园;等级   (初中英语单词)
  • permission [pə´miʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.允许;同意;许可   (初中英语单词)
  • driven [´driv(ə)n] 移动到这儿单词发声  drive 的过去分词   (初中英语单词)
  • definite [´definit] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.确定的,明确的   (初中英语单词)
  • wilderness [´wildənis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.荒地,荒野   (初中英语单词)
  • turkey [´tə:ki] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.火鸡   (初中英语单词)
  • treatment [´tri:tmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.待遇;对待;治疗   (初中英语单词)
  • account [ə´kaunt] 移动到这儿单词发声  vi.说明 vt.认为 n.帐目   (初中英语单词)
  • charming [´tʃɑ:miŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.可爱的;极好的   (初中英语单词)
  • hillside [´hilsaid] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.山腰   (初中英语单词)
  • welcome [´welkəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.受欢迎的;可喜的   (初中英语单词)
  • height [hait] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.高度;顶点;卓越   (初中英语单词)
  • character [´kæriktə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.特性;性质;人物;字   (初中英语单词)
  • considerable [kən´sidərəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.重要的;值得重视   (初中英语单词)
  • organize [´ɔ:gənaiz] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.组织;编组;建立   (初中英语单词)
  • beloved [bi´lʌvd] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.为….所爱的 n.爱人   (初中英语单词)
  • severe [si´viə] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.严厉的;苛刻的   (初中英语单词)
  • learning [´lə:niŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.学习;学问;知识   (初中英语单词)
  • mexico [´meksikəu] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.墨西哥   (初中英语单词)
  • governor [´gʌvənə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.总督;州长   (初中英语单词)
  • boyhood [´bɔihud] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.少年时代(期)   (高中英语单词)
  • loving [´lʌviŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.爱的,有爱情的   (高中英语单词)
  • indies [´indiz] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.东(西)印度群岛   (高中英语单词)
  • imitation [,imi´teiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.模仿;仿制品;赝品   (高中英语单词)
  • fortunately [´fɔ:tʃənətli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.幸运地   (高中英语单词)
  • obedience [ə´bi:djəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.服从;顺从   (高中英语单词)
  • courtesy [´kə:tisi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.礼貌;殷勤;好意   (高中英语单词)
  • loyalty [´lɔiəlti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.忠诚;忠心;忠实   (高中英语单词)
  • learned [´lə:nid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有学问的,博学的   (高中英语单词)
  • accuracy [´ækjurəsi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.准确(性);精密度   (高中英语单词)
  • stately [´steitli] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.庄严的,雄伟的   (高中英语单词)
  • behavior [bi´heiviə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.举止,行为   (高中英语单词)
  • engineering [,endʒi´niəriŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.工程技术;工程学   (高中英语单词)
  • lordship [´lɔ:dʃip] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.贵族权力;阁下   (高中英语单词)
  • skillful [´skilfəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有技巧的;熟练的   (高中英语单词)
  • horseman [´hɔ:smən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.骑手,马术师   (高中英语单词)
  • wisely [´waizli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.明智地,聪明地   (高中英语单词)
  • gladly [´glædli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.愉快地,高兴地   (高中英语单词)
  • undertaking [,ʌndə´teikiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.任务;事业;计划   (高中英语单词)
  • studied [´stʌdid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.故意的;有计划的   (高中英语单词)
  • horseback [´hɔ:sbæk] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.马背   (高中英语单词)
  • cordial [´kɔ:diəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.热忱的;亲切的   (高中英语单词)
  • decided [di´saidid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.明显的;决定的   (高中英语单词)
  • complexion [kəm´plekʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.肤色;情况;局面   (高中英语单词)
  • theirs [ðeəz] 移动到这儿单词发声  pron.他们的   (高中英语单词)
  • disturbance [di´stə:bəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.扰乱,骚动   (高中英语单词)
  • militia [mi´liʃə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.民兵组织   (高中英语单词)
  • lasting [´lɑ:stiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.持久的;永远的   (高中英语单词)
  • anniversary [,æni´və:səri] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.周年纪念(日)   (英语四级单词)
  • planter [´plɑ:ntə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.种植者;殖民者;花盆   (英语四级单词)
  • mathematics [,mæθə´mætiks] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.数学   (英语四级单词)
  • athlete [´æθlit, ´æθli:t] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.体育家;运动员   (英语四级单词)
  • traveled [´trævəld] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.见面广的;旅客多的   (英语四级单词)
  • delighted [di´laitid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.高兴的;喜欢的   (英语四级单词)
  • arisen [ə´rizn] 移动到这儿单词发声  arise的过去分词   (英语四级单词)
  • tactics [´tæktiks] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.策略;战术   (英语四级单词)
  • warning [´wɔ:niŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.警告;前兆 a.预告的   (英语四级单词)
  • daring [´deəriŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.&n.勇敢(的)   (英语四级单词)
  • taking [´teikiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.迷人的 n.捕获物   (英语六级单词)
  • politeness [pə´laitnis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.礼貌;文雅;温和   (英语六级单词)
  • richness [´ritʃnis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.富饶;富裕;华美   (英语六级单词)
  • hunting [´hʌntiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.打猎   (英语六级单词)

  • 上传人 欢乐鱼 分享于 2017-06-26 18:54:03
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