TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE: In the printed version of this text, all

apostrophes for contractions such as "can't", "wouldn't" and "he'd"

were omitted, to read as "cant", "wouldnt", and "hed". This etext

edition restores the omitted apostrophes.


A Professor of Phonetics.

As will be seen later on, Pygmalion needs, not a preface, but a sequel,

which I have supplied in its due place. The English have no respect for

their language, and will not teach their children to speak it. They

spell it so abominably that no man can teach himself what it sounds

like. It is impossible for an Englishman to open his mouth without

making some other Englishman hate or despise him. German and Spanish

are accessible to foreigners: English is not accessible even to

Englishmen. The reformer England needs today is an energetic phonetic

enthusiast: that is why I have made such a one the hero of a popular

play. There have been heroes of that kind crying in the wilderness for

many years past. When I became interested in the subject towards the

end of the eighteen-seventies, Melville Bell was dead; but Alexander J.

Ellis was still a living patriarch, with an impressive head always

covered by a velvet skull cap, for which he would apologize to public

meetings in a very courtly manner. He and Tito Pagliardini, another

phonetic veteran, were men whom it was impossible to dislike. Henry

Sweet, then a young man, lacked their sweetness of character: he was

about as conciliatory to conventional mortals as Ibsen or Samuel

Butler. His great ability as a phonetician (he was, I think, the best

of them all at his job) would have entitled him to high official

recognition, and perhaps enabled him to popularize his subject, but for

his Satanic contempt for all academic dignitaries and persons in

general who thought more of Greek than of phonetics. Once, in the days

when the Imperial Institute rose in South Kensington, and Joseph

Chamberlain was booming the Empire, I induced the editor of a leading

monthly review to commission an article from Sweet on the imperial

importance of his subject. When it arrived, it contained nothing but a

savagely derisive attack on a professor of language and literature

whose chair Sweet regarded as proper to a phonetic expert only. The

article, being libelous, had to be returned as impossible; and I had to

renounce my dream of dragging its author into the limelight. When I met

him afterwards, for the first time for many years, I found to my

astonishment that he, who had been a quite tolerably presentable young

man, had actually managed by sheer scorn to alter his personal

appearance until he had become a sort of walking repudiation of Oxford

and all its traditions. It must have been largely in his own despite

that he was squeezed into something called a Readership of phonetics

there. The future of phonetics rests probably with his pupils, who all

swore by him; but nothing could bring the man himself into any sort of

compliance with the university, to which he nevertheless clung by

divine right in an intensely Oxonian way. I daresay his papers, if he

has left any, include some satires that may be published without too

destructive results fifty years hence. He was, I believe, not in the

least an ill-natured man: very much the opposite, I should say; but he

would not suffer fools gladly.

Those who knew him will recognize in my third act the allusion to the

patent Shorthand in which he used to write postcards, and which may be

acquired from a four and six-penny manual published by the Clarendon

Press. The postcards which Mrs. Higgins describes are such as I have

received from Sweet. I would decipher a sound which a cockney would

represent by zerr, and a Frenchman by seu, and then write demanding

with some heat what on earth it meant. Sweet, with boundless contempt

for my stupidity, would reply that it not only meant but obviously was

the word Result, as no other Word containing that sound, and capable of

making sense with the context, existed in any language spoken on earth.

That less expert mortals should require fuller indications was beyond

Sweet's patience. Therefore, though the whole point of his "Current

Shorthand" is that it can express every sound in the language

perfectly, vowels as well as consonants, and that your hand has to make

no stroke except the easy and current ones with which you write m, n,

and u, l, p, and q, scribbling them at whatever angle comes easiest to

you, his unfortunatedetermination to make this remarkable and quite

legible script serve also as a Shorthand reduced it in his own practice

to the most inscrutable of cryptograms. His true objective was the

provision of a full, accurate, legible script for our noble but

ill-dressed language; but he was led past that by his contempt for the

popular Pitman system of Shorthand, which he called the Pitfall system.

The triumph of Pitman was a triumph of business organization: there was

a weekly paper to persuade you to learn Pitman: there were cheap

textbooks and exercise books and transcripts of speeches for you to

copy, and schools where experienced teachers coached you up to the

necessary proficiency. Sweet could not organize his market in that

fashion. He might as well have been the Sybil who tore up the leaves of

prophecy that nobody would attend to. The four and six-penny manual,

mostly in his lithographed handwriting, that was never vulgarly

advertized, may perhaps some day be taken up by a syndicate and pushed

upon the public as The Times pushed the Encyclopaedia Britannica; but

until then it will certainly not prevail against Pitman. I have bought

three copies of it during my lifetime; and I am informed by the

publishers that its cloistered existence is still a steady and healthy

one. I actuallylearned the system two several times; and yet the

shorthand in which I am writing these lines is Pitman's. And the reason

is, that my secretary cannot transcribe Sweet, having been perforce

taught in the schools of Pitman. Therefore, Sweet railed at Pitman as

vainly as Thersites railed at Ajax: his raillery, however it may have

eased his soul, gave no popular vogue to Current Shorthand. Pygmalion

Higgins is not a portrait of Sweet, to whom the adventure of Eliza

Doolittle would have been impossible; still, as will be seen, there are

touches of Sweet in the play. With Higgins's physique and temperament

Sweet might have set the Thames on fire. As it was, he impressed

himself professionally on Europe to an extent that made his comparative

personal obscurity, and the failure of Oxford to do justice to his

eminence, a puzzle to foreign specialists in his subject. I do not

blame Oxford, because I think Oxford is quite right in demanding a

certain social amenity from its nurslings (heaven knows it is not

exorbitant in its requirements!); for although I well know how hard it

is for a man of genius with a seriously underrated subject to maintain

serene and kindly relations with the men who underrate it, and who keep

all the best places for less important subjects which they profess

without originality and sometimes without much capacity for them,

still, if he overwhelms them with wrath and disdain, he cannot expect

them to heap honors on him.

Of the later generations of phoneticians I know little. Among them

towers the Poet Laureate, to whom perhaps Higgins may owe his Miltonic

sympathies, though here again I must disclaim all portraiture. But if

the play makes the public aware that there are such people as

phoneticians, and that they are among the most important people in

England at present, it will serve its turn.

I wish to boast that Pygmalion has been an extremely successful play

all over Europe and North America as well as at home. It is so

intensely and deliberately didactic, and its subject is esteemed so

dry, that I delight in throwing it at the heads of the wiseacres who

repeat the parrot cry that art should never be didactic. It goes to

prove my contention that art should never be anything else.

Finally, and for the encouragement of people troubled with accents that

cut them off from all high employment, I may add that the change

wrought by Professor Higgins in the flower girl is neither impossible

nor uncommon. The modern concierge's daughter who fulfils her ambition

by playing the Queen of Spain in Ruy Blas at the Theatre Francais is

only one of many thousands of men and women who have sloughed off their

native dialects and acquired a new tongue. But the thing has to be done

scientifically, or the last state of the aspirant may be worse than the

first. An honest and natural slum dialect is more tolerable than the

attempt of a phonetically untaught person to imitate the vulgar dialect

of the golf club; and I am sorry to say that in spite of the efforts of

our Academy of Dramatic Art, there is still too much sham golfing

English on our stage, and too little of the noble English of Forbes



Covent Garden at 11.15 p.m. Torrents of heavy summer rain. Cab whistles

blowing frantically in all directions. Pedestrians running for shelter

into the market and under the portico of St. Paul's Church, where there

are already several people, among them a lady and her daughter in

evening dress. They are all peering out gloomily at the rain, except

one man with his back turned to the rest, who seems wholly preoccupied

with a notebook in which he is writing busily.

The church clock strikes the first quarter.

THE DAUGHTER [in the space between the central pillars, close to the

one on her left] I'm getting chilled to the bone. What can Freddy be

doing all this time? He's been gone twenty minutes.

THE MOTHER [on her daughter's right] Not so long. But he ought to have

got us a cab by this.

A BYSTANDER [on the lady's right] He won't get no cab not until

half-past eleven, missus, when they come back after dropping their

theatre fares.

THE MOTHER. But we must have a cab. We can't stand here until half-past

eleven. It's too bad.

THE BYSTANDER. Well, it ain't my fault, missus.

THE DAUGHTER. If Freddy had a bit of gumption, he would have got one at

the theatre door.

THE MOTHER. What could he have done, poor boy?

THE DAUGHTER. Other people got cabs. Why couldn't he?

Freddy rushes in out of the rain from the Southampton Street side, and

comes between them closing a dripping umbrella. He is a young man of

twenty, in evening dress, very wet around the ankles.

THE DAUGHTER. Well, haven't you got a cab?

FREDDY. There's not one to be had for love or money.

THE MOTHER. Oh, Freddy, there must be one. You can't have tried.

THE DAUGHTER. It's too tiresome. Do you expect us to go and get one


FREDDY. I tell you they're all engaged. The rain was so sudden: nobody

was prepared; and everybody had to take a cab. I've been to Charing

Cross one way and nearly to Ludgate Circus the other; and they were all


THE MOTHER. Did you try Trafalgar Square?

FREDDY. There wasn't one at Trafalgar Square.

THE DAUGHTER. Did you try?

FREDDY. I tried as far as Charing Cross Station. Did you expect me to

walk to Hammersmith?

THE DAUGHTER. You haven't tried at all.

THE MOTHER. You really are very helpless, Freddy. Go again; and don't

come back until you have found a cab.

FREDDY. I shall simply get soaked for nothing.

THE DAUGHTER. And what about us? Are we to stay here all night in this

draught, with next to nothing on. You selfish pig--

FREDDY. Oh, very well: I'll go, I'll go. [He opens his umbrella and

dashes off Strandwards, but comes into collision with a flower girl,

who is hurrying in for shelter, knocking her basket out of her hands. A

blinding flash of lightning, followed instantly by a rattling peal of

thunder, orchestrates the incident]

THE FLOWER GIRL. Nah then, Freddy: look wh' y' gowin, deah.

FREDDY. Sorry [he rushes off].

THE FLOWER GIRL [picking up her scattered flowers and replacing them in

the basket] There's menners f' yer! Te-oo banches o voylets trod into

the mad. [She sits down on the plinth of the column, sorting her

flowers, on the lady's right. She is not at all an attractive person.

She is perhaps eighteen, perhaps twenty, hardly older. She wears a

little sailor hat of black straw that has long been exposed to the dust

and soot of London and has seldom if ever been brushed. Her hair needs

washing rather badly: its mousy color can hardly be natural. She wears

a shoddy black coat that reaches nearly to her knees and is shaped to

her waist. She has a brown skirt with a coarse apron. Her boots are

much the worse for wear. She is no doubt as clean as she can afford to

be; but compared to the ladies she is very dirty. Her features are no

worse than theirs; but their condition leaves something to be desired;

and she needs the services of a dentist].

THE MOTHER. How do you know that my son's name is Freddy, pray?

THE FLOWER GIRL. Ow, eez ye-ooa san, is e? Wal, fewd dan y' de-ooty

bawmz a mather should, eed now bettern to spawl a pore gel's flahrzn

than ran awy atbaht pyin. Will ye-oo py me f'them? [Here, with

apologies, this desperate attempt to represent her dialect without a

phonetic alphabet must be abandoned as unintelligible outside London.]

THE DAUGHTER. Do nothing of the sort, mother. The idea!

THE MOTHER. Please allow me, Clara. Have you any pennies?

THE DAUGHTER. No. I've nothing smaller than sixpence.

THE FLOWER GIRL [hopefully] I can give you change for a tanner, kind


THE MOTHER [to Clara] Give it to me. [Clara parts reluctantly]. Now [to

the girl] This is for your flowers.

THE FLOWER GIRL. Thank you kindly, lady.

THE DAUGHTER. Make her give you the change. These things are only a

penny a bunch.

THE MOTHER. Do hold your tongue, Clara. [To the girl]. You can keep the


THE FLOWER GIRL. Oh, thank you, lady.

THE MOTHER. Now tell me how you know that young gentleman's name.


THE MOTHER. I heard you call him by it. Don't try to deceive me.

THE FLOWER GIRL [protesting] Who's trying to deceive you? I called him

Freddy or Charlie same as you might yourself if you was talking to a

stranger and wished to be pleasant. [She sits down beside her basket].

THE DAUGHTER. Sixpence thrown away! Really, mamma, you might have

spared Freddy that. [She retreats in disgust behind the pillar].

An elderly gentleman of the amiable military type rushes into shelter,

and closes a dripping umbrella. He is in the same plight as Freddy,

very wet about the ankles. He is in evening dress, with a light

overcoat. He takes the place left vacant by the daughter's retirement.


THE MOTHER [to the gentleman] Oh, sir, is there any sign of its


THE GENTLEMAN. I'm afraid not. It started worse than ever about two

minutes ago. [He goes to the plinth beside the flower girl; puts up his

foot on it; and stoops to turn down his trouser ends].

THE MOTHER. Oh, dear! [She retires sadly and joins her daughter].

THE FLOWER GIRL [taking advantage of the military gentleman's proximity

to establish friendly relations with him]. If it's worse it's a sign

it's nearly over. So cheer up, Captain; and buy a flower off a poor


THE GENTLEMAN. I'm sorry, I haven't any change.

THE FLOWER GIRL. I can give you change, Captain,

  • despise [di´spaiz] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.轻视,藐视   (初中英语单词)
  • wilderness [´wildənis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.荒地,荒野   (初中英语单词)
  • velvet [´velvit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&a.天鹅绒(般的)   (初中英语单词)
  • dislike [dis´laik] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.&n.不喜爱,厌恶   (初中英语单词)
  • character [´kæriktə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.特性;性质;人物;字   (初中英语单词)
  • ability [ə´biliti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.(办事)能力;才干   (初中英语单词)
  • imperial [im´piəriəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.帝国的;庄严的   (初中英语单词)
  • institute [´institju:t] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.学院 vt.建立;设置   (初中英语单词)
  • review [ri´vju:] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.&n.复习;回顾;检查   (初中英语单词)
  • expert [´ekspə:t] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&a.专家;内行   (初中英语单词)
  • actually [´æktʃuəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.事实上;实际上   (初中英语单词)
  • nevertheless [,nevəðə´les] 移动到这儿单词发声  conj.&ad.然而;不过   (初中英语单词)
  • frenchman [´frentʃmən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.法国人   (初中英语单词)
  • obviously [´ɔbviəsli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.明显地;显而易见地   (初中英语单词)
  • capable [´keipəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有能力;能干的   (初中英语单词)
  • spoken [´spəukən] 移动到这儿单词发声  speak的过去分词   (初中英语单词)
  • patience [´peiʃəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.忍耐(力);耐心;坚韧   (初中英语单词)
  • therefore [´ðeəfɔ:] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.&conj.因此;所以   (初中英语单词)
  • whatever [wɔt´evə] 移动到这儿单词发声  pron.&a.无论什么   (初中英语单词)
  • unfortunate [ʌn´fɔ:tʃunit] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不幸的,运气差的   (初中英语单词)
  • remarkable [ri´mɑ:kəbl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.值得注意的;显著的   (初中英语单词)
  • accurate [´ækjurət] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.准确的;精密的   (初中英语单词)
  • system [´sistəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.系统,体系,制度   (初中英语单词)
  • triumph [´traiəmf] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.胜利 vi.得胜,战胜   (初中英语单词)
  • weekly [´wi:kli] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.&ad.每周一次(的)   (初中英语单词)
  • persuade [pə´sweid] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.(被)说服;使相信   (初中英语单词)
  • organize [´ɔ:gənaiz] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.组织;编组;建立   (初中英语单词)
  • handwriting [´hænd,raitiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.笔迹;书法   (初中英语单词)
  • prevail [pri´veil] 移动到这儿单词发声  vi.胜(过);流行;普遍   (初中英语单词)
  • existence [ig´zistəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.存在;生存;生活   (初中英语单词)
  • writing [´raitiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.书写;写作;书法   (初中英语单词)
  • extent [ik´stent] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.长度;程度;范围   (初中英语单词)
  • failure [´feiljə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.失败;衰竭;破产   (初中英语单词)
  • puzzle [´pʌzl] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.迷(惑) v.(使)迷惑   (初中英语单词)
  • genius [´dʒi:niəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.天才(人物);天赋   (初中英语单词)
  • seriously [´siəriəsli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.严肃;严重,重大   (初中英语单词)
  • capacity [kə´pæsiti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.容量;智能;能力   (初中英语单词)
  • extremely [ik´stri:mli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.极端地;非常地   (初中英语单词)
  • employment [im´plɔimənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.工作;职业;雇用   (初中英语单词)
  • dialect [´daiəlekt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.方言,土语,地方话   (初中英语单词)
  • academy [ə´kædəmi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.专科学校;学会;协会   (初中英语单词)
  • dramatic [drə´mætik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.戏剧的;戏剧般的   (初中英语单词)
  • running [´rʌniŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.奔跑的;流动的   (初中英语单词)
  • wholly [´həul-li] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.完全,十足;统统   (初中英语单词)
  • helpless [´helpləs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.无助的,无依靠的   (初中英语单词)
  • selfish [´selfiʃ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.自私的,利己的   (初中英语单词)
  • lightning [´laitniŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.闪电 a.突然的   (初中英语单词)
  • instantly [´instəntli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.立即,立刻   (初中英语单词)
  • column [´kɔləm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.柱;柱状物;纵队   (初中英语单词)
  • attractive [ə´træktiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有吸引力;诱人的   (初中英语单词)
  • coarse [kɔ:s] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.粗(糙)的;粗鲁的   (初中英语单词)
  • desperate [´despərit] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.拼死的;绝望的   (初中英语单词)
  • alphabet [´ælfəbet] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.字母表   (初中英语单词)
  • deceive [di´si:v] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.欺骗,欺诈   (初中英语单词)
  • disgust [dis´gʌst] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.厌恶 vt.令(人)作呕   (初中英语单词)
  • vacant [´veikənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.空虚的,无表情的   (初中英语单词)
  • advantage [əd´vɑ:ntidʒ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.优势;利益   (初中英语单词)
  • preface [´prefis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.序 v.开始;导致   (高中英语单词)
  • impressive [im´presiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.给人深刻印象的   (高中英语单词)
  • veteran [´vetərən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.老兵 a.老练的   (高中英语单词)
  • sweetness [´swi:tnis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.甜蜜;芳香;亲切   (高中英语单词)
  • contempt [kən´tempt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.轻蔑;受辱;不顾   (高中英语单词)
  • commission [kə´miʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.委任(状) vt.委任   (高中英语单词)
  • determination [di,tə:mi´neiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.决心;决定   (高中英语单词)
  • lifetime [´laiftaim] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.一生,终生,寿命   (高中英语单词)
  • learned [´lə:nid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有学问的,博学的   (高中英语单词)
  • portrait [´pɔ:trit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.肖像;相片;雕像   (高中英语单词)
  • oxford [´ɔksfəd] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.牛津   (高中英语单词)
  • disdain [dis´dein] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.&n.藐视,轻视   (高中英语单词)
  • deliberately [di´libərətli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.故意地;慎重地   (高中英语单词)
  • encouragement [in´kʌridʒmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.鼓励;赞助;引诱   (高中英语单词)
  • imitate [´imiteit] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.模仿;伪造   (高中英语单词)
  • missus [´misəz] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.(已婚的)…夫人   (高中英语单词)
  • umbrella [ʌm´brelə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.伞   (高中英语单词)
  • circus [´sə:kəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.马戏(团);圆形广场   (高中英语单词)
  • theirs [ðeəz] 移动到这儿单词发声  pron.他们的   (高中英语单词)
  • plight [plait] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.境况;困境;苦境   (高中英语单词)
  • version [´və:ʃən, ´və:rʒən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.翻译;说明;译本   (英语四级单词)
  • accessible [ək´sesəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.易接近的;可到达的   (英语四级单词)
  • energetic [,enə´dʒetik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.精力旺盛的;有力的   (英语四级单词)
  • conventional [kən´venʃənəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.常规的;协定的   (英语四级单词)
  • academic [,ækə´demik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.学术的 n.大学学生   (英语四级单词)
  • intensely [in´tensli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.激烈地;热切地   (英语四级单词)
  • allusion [ə´lu:ʒən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.暗指;提及;引喻   (英语四级单词)
  • manual [´mænjuəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.用手(操作)的 n.手册   (英语四级单词)
  • boundless [´baundlis] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.无边无际的   (英语四级单词)
  • objective [ɔb´dʒektiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.客观的 n.目标   (英语四级单词)
  • experienced [ik´spiəriənst] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有经验的;熟练的   (英语四级单词)
  • obscurity [əb´skjuəriti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.暗(淡);朦胧;含糊   (英语四级单词)
  • parrot [´pærət] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.鹦鹉;应声虫   (英语四级单词)
  • contention [kən´tenʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.论点;竞争;争论   (英语四级单词)
  • uncommon [ʌn´kɔmən] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.非常的,非凡的,罕见的   (英语四级单词)
  • vulgar [´vʌlgə] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.粗俗的;大众的   (英语四级单词)
  • notebook [´nəutbuk] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.笔记本   (英语四级单词)
  • tiresome [´taiəsəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.令人厌倦的;讨厌的   (英语四级单词)
  • tanner [´tænə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.制革工人   (英语四级单词)
  • trying [´traiiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.难堪的;费劲的   (英语四级单词)
  • sixpence [´sikspəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.六便士(硬币)   (英语四级单词)
  • elderly [´eldəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  a. 较老的,年长的   (英语四级单词)
  • amiable [´eimiəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.亲切的,温和的   (英语四级单词)
  • reformer [ri´fɔ:mə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.改革者;革新者   (英语六级单词)
  • script [skript] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.笔迹;手稿;剧本   (英语六级单词)
  • syndicate [´sindikit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.理事会   (英语六级单词)
  • thames [temz] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.泰晤士河   (英语六级单词)
  • originality [ə,ridʒi´næliti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.独创性;创举;新颖   (英语六级单词)
  • frantically [´fræntikəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.狂暴地,疯狂地   (英语六级单词)
  • gloomily [´glu:mili] 移动到这儿单词发声  adv.忧郁的   (英语六级单词)
  • collision [kə´liʒən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.碰幢;冲突;互撞事件   (英语六级单词)
  • abandoned [ə´bændənd] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.被抛弃的;无约束的   (英语六级单词)

  • 上传人 欢乐鱼 分享于 2017-06-26 17:37:59
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