酷兔英语



FROM SAIL TO STEAM

RECOLLECTIONS OF NAVAL LIFE

BY

CAPT. A. T. MAHAN

U.S.N. (RETIRED)

AUTHOR OF

"THE INFLUENCE OF SEA-POWER UPON HISTORY" ETC.

HARPER & BROTHERS PUBLISHERS

NEW YORK AND LONDON

MCMVII

Copyright, 1906, 1907, by HARPER & BROTHERS.

_All rights reserved._

Published October, 1907.

CONTENTS

CHAP. PAGE

PREFACE v

INTRODUCING MYSELF ix

I. NAVAL CONDITIONS BEFORE THE WAR OF SECESSION--THE

OFFICERS AND SEAMEN 3

II. NAVAL CONDITIONS BEFORE THE WAR OF SECESSION--THE

VESSELS 25

III. THE NAVAL ACADEMY IN ITS RELATION TO THE NAVY AT

LARGE 45

IV. THE NAVAL ACADEMY IN ITS INTERIOR WORKINGS--PRACTICE

CRUISES 70

V. MY FIRST CRUISE AFTER GRADUATION--NAUTICAL CHARACTERS 103

VI. MY FIRST CRUISE AFTER GRADUATION--NAUTICAL SCENES

AND SCENERY--THE APPROACH OF DISUNION 127

VII. INCIDENTS OF WAR AND BLOCKADE SERVICE 156

VIII. INCIDENTS OF WAR AND BLOCKADE SERVICE--CONTINUED 179

IX. A ROUNDABOUT ROAD TO CHINA 196

X. CHINA AND JAPAN 229

XI. THE TURNING OF A LONG LANE--HISTORICAL, NAVAL, AND

PERSONAL 266

XII. EXPERIENCES OF AUTHORSHIP 302

PREFACE

When I was a boy, some years before I obtained my appointment in the

navy, I spent many of those happy hours that only childhood knows

poring over the back numbers of a British service periodical, which

began its career in 1828, with the title _Colburn's United Service

Magazine_; under which name, save and except the Colburn, it still

survives. Besides weightier matters, its early issues abounded in

reminiscences by naval officers, then yet in the prime of life, who

had served through the great Napoleonic wars. More delightful still,

it had numerous nautical stories, based probably on facts, serials

under such entrancing titles as "Leaves from my Log Book," by Flexible

Grommet, Passed Midshipman; a pen-name, the nautical felicity of which

will be best appreciated by one who has had the misfortune to handle a

grommet[1] which was not flexible. Then there was "The Order Book," by

Jonathan Oldjunk; an epithet so suggestive of the waste-heap, even to

a landsman's ears, that one marvels a man ever took it unto himself,

especially in that decline of life when we are more sensitive on the

subject of bodily disabilities than once we were. Old junk, however,

can yet be "worked up," as the sea expression goes, into other uses,

and that perhaps was what Mr. Oldjunk meant; his early adventures as a

young "luff" were, for economical reasons, worked up into their

present literary shape, with the addition of a certain amount of

extraneous matter--love-making, and the like. Indeed, so far from

uselessness, that veteranseaman and rigid economist, the Earl of St.

Vincent, when First Lord of the Admiralty, had given to a specific

form of old junk--viz., "shakings"--the honors of a special order, for

the preservation thereof, the which forms the staple of a comical

anecdote in Basil Hall's _Fragments of Voyages and Travels_; itself a

superior example of the instructive "recollections," of less literary

merit, which but for Colburn's would have perished.

Any one who has attempted to write history knows what queer nuggets of

useful information lie hidden away in such papers; how they often help

to reconstruct an incident, or determine a mooted point. If the

Greeks, after the Peloponnesian war, had had a Colburn's, we should

have a more certain, if not a perfect, clew to the reconstruction of

the trireme; and probably even could deduce with some accuracy the

daily routine, the several duties, and hear the professional jokes and

squabbles, of their officers and crews. The serious people who write

history can never fill the place of the gossips, who pour out an

unpremeditated mixture of intimate knowledge and idle trash.

Trash? Upon the whole is not the trash the truest history? perhaps not

the most valuable, but the most real? If you want contemporary color,

contemporary atmosphere, you must seek it among the impressions which

can be obtained only from those who have lived a life amid particular

surroundings, which they breathe and which colors them--dyes them in

the wool. However skilless, they cannot help reproducing, any more

than water poured from an old ink-bottle can help coming out more or

less black; although, if sufficiently pretentious, they can

monstrously caricature, especially if they begin with the modest

time-worn admission that they are more familiar with the marling-spike

than with the pen. But even the caricature born of pretentiousness

will not prevent the unpremeditated betrayal of conditions, facts, and

incidents, which help reconstruct the _milieu_; how much more, then,

the unaffected simplicity of the born story-teller. I do not know how

Froissart ranks as an authority with historians. I have not read him

for years; and my recollections are chiefly those of childhood, with

all the remoteness and all the vividness which memory preserves from

early impressions. I think I now might find him wearisome; not so in

boyhood. He was to me then, and seems to me now, a glorified Flexible

Grommet or Jonathan Oldjunk; ranking, as to them, as Boswell does

towards the common people of biography. That there are many solid

chunks of useful information to be dug out of him I am sure; that his

stories are all true, I have no desire to question; but what among it

all is so instructive, so entertaining, as the point of view of

himself, his heroes, and his colloquists--the particular contemporary

modification of universal human nature in which he lived, and moved,

and had his being?

If such a man has the genius of his business, as had Froissart and

Boswell, he excels in proportion to his unconsciousness of the fact;

his colors run truer. For lesser gobblers, who have not genius, the

best way to lose consciousness is just to IT themselves go; if they

endeavor to paint artistically the muddle will be worse. To such the

proverb of the cobbler and his last is of perennial warning. As a

barber once sagely remarked to me, "You can't trim a beard well,

unless you're born to it." It is possible in some degree to imitate

Froissart and Boswell in that marvellous diligence to accumulate

material which was common to them both; but, when gathered, how

impossible it is to work up that old junk into permanent engrossing

interest let those answer who have grappled with ancient chronicles,

or with many biographies. So, with a circumlocution which probably

convicts me in advance of decisivedeficiency as a narrator, I let

myself go. I have no model, unless it be the old man sitting in the

sun on a summer's day, bringing forth out of his memories things new

and old--mostly old.

A. T. MAHAN.

INTRODUCING MYSELF

While extracts from the following pages were appearing in _Harper's

Magazine_, I received a letter from a reader hoping that I would say

something about myself before entering the navy. This had been outside

my purpose, which was chiefly to narrate what had passed around me

that I thought interesting; but it seems possibly fit to establish in

a few words my antecedents by heredity and environment.

I was born September 27, 1840, within the boundaries of the State of

New York, but not upon its territory; the place, West Point on the

Hudson River, having been ceded to the General Government for the

purposes of the Military Academy, at which my father, Dennis Hart

Mahan, was then Professor of Engineering, as well Civil as Military.

He himself was of pure Irish blood, his father and mother, already

married, having emigrated together from the old country early in the

last century; but he was also American by birthright, having been born

in April, 1802, very soon after the arrival of his parents in the city

of New York. There also he was baptized into the Roman Catholic

Church, in the parish of St. Peter's, the church building of which now

stands far down town, in Barclay Street. It is not, I believe, the

same that existed in 1802.

Very soon afterwards, before he reached an age to remember, his

parents removed to Norfolk, Virginia, where he grew up and formed his

earliest associations. As is usual, these colored his whole life; he

was always a Virginian in attachment and preference. In the days of

crisis he remained firm to the Union, by conviction and affection; but

he broke no friendships, and to the end there continued in him that

surest positiveindication of local fondness, admiration for the women

of what was to him his native land. In beauty, in manner, and in

charm, they surpassed. "Your mother is Northern," he once said to me,

"and very few can approach her; but still, in the general, none

compare for me with the Southern woman." The same causes, early

association, gave him a very pronounceddislike to England; for he

could remember the War of 1812, and had experienced the embittered

feeling which was probably nowhere fiercer than around the shores of

the Chesapeake, the scene of the most wide-spread devastation

inflicted, partly from motives of policy, partly as measures of

retaliation. Spending afterwards three or four years of early manhood

in France, he there imbibed a warm liking for the people, among whom

he contracted several intimacies. He there knew personally Lafayette

and his family; receiving from them the hospitality which the Marquis'

service in the War of Independence, and his then recent ovation during

his tour of the United States in 1825, prompted him to extend to

Americans. This communication with a man who could tell, and did tell

him, intimate stories of intercourse with Washington doubtless

emphasized my father's patriotic prejudices as well as his patriotism.

When he revisited France, in 1856, he found many former friends still

alive, and when I myself went there for the first time, in 1870, he

asked me too to hunt them up; but they had all then disappeared. His

fondness for the French doubtless accentuated his repugnance to the

English, at that time still their traditional enemy. The combination

of Irish and French prepossession could scarcely have resulted

otherwise; and thus was evolved an atmosphere in which I was brought

up, not only passively absorbing, but to a certain degree actively

impressed with love for France and the Southern section of the United

States, while learning to look askance upon England and abolitionists.

The experiences of life, together with subsequentreading and

reflection, modified and in the end entirely overcame these early

prepossessions.

My father was for over forty years professor at West Point, of which

he had been a graduate. In short, the Academy was his life, and he

there earned what I think I am modest in calling a distinguished

reputation. The best proof of this perhaps is that at even so early a

date in our national history as his graduation from the Academy, in

1824, he was thought an officer of such promise as to make it

expedient to send him to France for the higher military education in

which the country of Napoleon and his marshals then stood pre-eminent.

From 1820, when he entered the Academy as a pupil, to his death in

1871, he was detached from it only these three or four years. Yet this

determination of his life's work proceeded from a mere accident,

scarcely more than a boy's fancy. He had begun the study of medicine,

under Dr. Archer, of Richmond; but he had a very strong wish to learn

drawing. In those primitive days the opportunity of instruction was

wanting where he lived; and hearing that it was taught at the Military

Academy he set to work for an appointment, not from inclination to the

calling of a soldier, but as a means to this particular end. It is

rather singular that he should have had no bias towards the profession

of arms; for although he drifted almost from the first into the civil

branch, as a teacher and then professor, I have never known a man of

more strict and lofty military ideas. The spirit of the profession was

strong in him, though he cared little for its pride, pomp, and

circumstance. I believe that in this observation others who knew him

well agreed with me.

The work of a teacher, however important and absorbing in itself, does

not usually offer much of interest to readers. My father, by the

personal contact of teacher and taught, knew almost every one of the

distinguished generals who fought in the War of Secession, on either

the Union or the Confederate side. With scarcely an exception, they

had been his pupils; but his own life was uneventful. He married, in

1839, Mary Helena Okill, of New York City. My mother's father was

English, her mother an American, but with a strong strain of French

blood; her maiden name, Mary Jay, being that of a Huguenot family

which had left France under Louis XIV. By the time of her birth, in

1786, a good deal of American admixture had doubtless qualified the

original French; but I remember her well, and though she lived to be

seventy-three, she had up to the last a vivacity and keen enjoyment of

life, more French than American, reflected from quick black eyes,

which fairly danced with animation through her interest in her

surroundings.

From my derivation, therefore, I am a pretty fair illustration of the

mix-up of bloods which seems destined to bring forth some new and yet

undecipherable combination on the North American continent. One-half

Irish, one-fourth English, and a good deal more than "a trace" of

French, would appear to be the showing of a quantitative analysis.

Yet, as far as I understand my personality, I think to see in the

result the predominance which the English strain has usually asserted

for itself over others. I have none of the gregariousness of either

the French or Irish; and while I have no difficulty in entering into

civil conversation with a stranger who addresses me, I rarely begin,

having, upon the whole, a preference for an introduction. This is not

perverseness, but lack of facility; and I believe Froissart noted

something of the same in the Englishmen of five hundred years ago. I

have, too, an abhorrence of public speaking, and a desire to slip

unobserved into a back seat wherever I am, which amount to a mania;

but I am bound to admit I get both these dispositions from my father,

whose Irishry was undiluted by foreign admixture.

In my boyhood, till I was nearly ten, West Point was a very

sequestered place. It was accessible only by steam-boats; and during

great part of the winter months not by them, the Hudson being frozen

over most of the season as far as ten to twenty miles lower down. The

railroad was not running before 1848, and then it followed the east

bank of the river. One of my early recollections is of begging off

from school one day, long enough to go to a part of the post distant

from our house, whence I caught my first sight of a train of cars on

the opposite shore. Another recollection is of the return of a company

of engineer soldiers from the War with Mexico. The detachment was

drawn up for inspection where we boys could see it. One of the men had

grown a full beard, a sight to me then as novel as the railroad, and I

announced it at home as a most interesting fact. I had as yet seen

only clean-shaven faces. Among my other recollections of childhood


生词表:
  • academy [ə´kædəmi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.专科学校;学会;协会   (初中英语单词)
  • interior [in´tiəriə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&a.内部地(的)   (初中英语单词)
  • childhood [´tʃaildhud] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.幼年(时代);早期   (初中英语单词)
  • career [kə´riə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.经历;生涯;职业   (初中英语单词)
  • delightful [di´laitful] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.讨人喜欢的   (初中英语单词)
  • literary [´litərəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.文学(上)的   (初中英语单词)
  • addition [ə´diʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.加;加法;附加物   (初中英语单词)
  • amount [ə´maunt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.总数;数量 v.合计   (初中英语单词)
  • instructive [in´strʌktiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有益的   (初中英语单词)
  • hidden [´hid(ə)n] 移动到这儿单词发声  hide 的过去分词   (初中英语单词)
  • incident [´insidənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.小事件;事变   (初中英语单词)
  • professional [prə´feʃənəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.职业的 n.自由职业   (初中英语单词)
  • mixture [´mikstʃə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.混合;混合比;混合物   (初中英语单词)
  • intimate [´intimit] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.亲密的 n.知己   (初中英语单词)
  • valuable [´væljuəbəl, -jubəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有价值的,贵重的   (初中英语单词)
  • atmosphere [´ætməsfiə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.大气;空气;气氛   (初中英语单词)
  • sufficiently [sə´fiʃəntli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.充分地,足够地   (初中英语单词)
  • admission [əd´miʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.接纳;承认   (初中英语单词)
  • chiefly [´tʃi:fli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.主要地;尤其   (初中英语单词)
  • universal [,ju:ni´və:səl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.宇宙的;普遍的   (初中英语单词)
  • genius [´dʒi:niəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.天才(人物);天赋   (初中英语单词)
  • proportion [prə´pɔ:ʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.比率 vt.使成比例   (初中英语单词)
  • diligence [´dilidʒəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.勤奋,努力   (初中英语单词)
  • permanent [´pə:mənənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.永久的;不变的   (初中英语单词)
  • arrival [ə´raivəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.到达;到达的人(物)   (初中英语单词)
  • virginia [və´dʒinjə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.佛吉尼亚(州)   (初中英语单词)
  • conviction [kən´vikʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.定罪;确信,信服   (初中英语单词)
  • affection [ə´fekʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.友爱;慈爱   (初中英语单词)
  • indication [,indi´keiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.指示;征兆,迹象   (初中英语单词)
  • admiration [,ædmə´reiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.赞赏,钦佩   (初中英语单词)
  • dislike [dis´laik] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.&n.不喜爱,厌恶   (初中英语单词)
  • partly [´pɑ:tli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.部分地;不完全地   (初中英语单词)
  • independence [,indi´pendəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.独立,自主,自立   (初中英语单词)
  • communication [kə,mju:ni´keiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.通信;通讯联系   (初中英语单词)
  • doubtless [´dautlis] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.无疑地;大概,多半   (初中英语单词)
  • learning [´lə:niŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.学习;学问;知识   (初中英语单词)
  • reading [´ri:diŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.(阅)读;朗读;读物   (初中英语单词)
  • modest [´mɔdist] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.谦虚的;朴素的   (初中英语单词)
  • primitive [´primitiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.原始的 n.原始人   (初中英语单词)
  • instruction [in´strʌkʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.教育;训练;指导   (初中英语单词)
  • profession [prə´feʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.职业;声明;表白   (初中英语单词)
  • observation [,ɔbzə´veiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.观测;注意;意义   (初中英语单词)
  • contact [´kɔntækt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.接触;联系 v.联络   (初中英语单词)
  • exception [ik´sepʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.例外;反对,异议   (初中英语单词)
  • maiden [´meidn] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.少女 a.未婚的   (初中英语单词)
  • therefore [´ðeəfɔ:] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.&conj.因此;所以   (初中英语单词)
  • illustration [,ilə´streiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.插图,图解,例证   (初中英语单词)
  • combination [,kɔmbi´neiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.结合;联合;团体   (初中英语单词)
  • continent [´kɔntinənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.大陆,陆地   (初中英语单词)
  • personality [,pə:sə´næliti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.人;个性;人品;人物   (初中英语单词)
  • rarely [´reəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.难得;非凡地   (初中英语单词)
  • introduction [,intrə´dʌkʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.介绍;引言;引导   (初中英语单词)
  • facility [fə´siliti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.容易;熟练;灵巧   (初中英语单词)
  • wherever [weər´evə] 移动到这儿单词发声  conj.无论在哪里   (初中英语单词)
  • hudson [´hʌdsn] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.哈得孙河   (初中英语单词)
  • running [´rʌniŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.奔跑的;流动的   (初中英语单词)
  • mexico [´meksikəu] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.墨西哥   (初中英语单词)
  • cruise [kru:z] 移动到这儿单词发声  vi.&n.巡航;航游   (高中英语单词)
  • misfortune [mis´fɔ:tʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.不幸;灾祸   (高中英语单词)
  • sensitive [´sensitiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.敏感的;感光的   (高中英语单词)
  • veteran [´vetərən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.老兵 a.老练的   (高中英语单词)
  • accuracy [´ækjurəsi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.准确(性);精密度   (高中英语单词)
  • routine [ru:´ti:n] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.日常工作 a.日常的   (高中英语单词)
  • contemporary [kən´tempərəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.&n.同时代的(人)   (高中英语单词)
  • simplicity [sim´plisiti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.简单;朴素   (高中英语单词)
  • consciousness [´kɔnʃəsnis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.意识;觉悟;知觉   (高中英语单词)
  • engineering [,endʒi´niəriŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.工程技术;工程学   (高中英语单词)
  • parish [´pæriʃ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.教区(的全体居民)   (高中英语单词)
  • preference [´prefərəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.优先选择;偏爱(物)   (高中英语单词)
  • positive [´pɔzətiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.确定的   (高中英语单词)
  • pronounced [prə´naunst] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.发出音的;显著的   (高中英语单词)
  • nowhere [´nəuweə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.无处;不知道   (高中英语单词)
  • personally [´pə:sənəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.亲自;就个人来说   (高中英语单词)
  • hospitality [,hɔspi´tæliti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.好客,殷勤   (高中英语单词)
  • patriotic [,pætri´ɔtik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.爱国的   (高中英语单词)
  • subsequent [´sʌbsikwənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.其次的;其后的   (高中英语单词)
  • napoleon [nə´pəuljən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.拿破仑   (高中英语单词)
  • archer [´ɑ:tʃə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.射手,弓箭手   (高中英语单词)
  • hearing [´hiəriŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.听力;听证会;审讯   (高中英语单词)
  • inclination [,inkli´neiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.倾斜;爱好;天资   (高中英语单词)
  • singular [´siŋgjulə] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.单一的;非凡的   (高中英语单词)
  • strict [strikt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.严厉的;精确的   (高中英语单词)
  • confederate [kən´fedəreit] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.同盟的 n.同盟者   (高中英语单词)
  • strain [strein] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.拉紧 vi.拖 n.张力   (高中英语单词)
  • enjoyment [in´dʒɔimənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.享受;愉快;乐趣   (高中英语单词)
  • boyhood [´bɔihud] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.少年时代(期)   (高中英语单词)
  • recollection [,rekə´lekʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.回忆;追想;记忆力   (高中英语单词)
  • inspection [in´spekʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.检查;视察;参观   (高中英语单词)
  • blockade [blɔ´keid] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&vt.封锁(城镇等)   (英语四级单词)
  • periodical [,piəri´ɔdikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.定期的 n.期刊   (英语四级单词)
  • flexible [´fleksəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.灵活的,柔韧的   (英语四级单词)
  • bodily [´bɔdili] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.身体的 ad.亲自   (英语四级单词)
  • economical [,i:kə´nɔmikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.节俭的;经济的   (英语四级单词)
  • economist [i´kɔnəmist] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.经济学家;节俭的人   (英语四级单词)
  • preservation [,prezə´veiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.保存;储藏;维护   (英语四级单词)
  • staple [´steipəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&vt.(用)钉书钉   (英语四级单词)
  • reconstruction [,ri:kəns´trʌkʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.重建(物);修复   (英语四级单词)
  • biography [bai´ɔgrəfi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.传记(文学)   (英语四级单词)
  • lesser [´lesə] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.较小的;次要的   (英语四级单词)
  • cobbler [´kɔblə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.皮匠;补鞋匠   (英语四级单词)
  • warning [´wɔ:niŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.警告;前兆 a.预告的   (英语四级单词)
  • decisive [di´saisiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.决定性的,确定的   (英语四级单词)
  • attachment [ə´tætʃmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.附着;附件;爱慕   (英语四级单词)
  • experienced [ik´spiəriənst] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有经验的;熟练的   (英语四级单词)
  • policy [´pɔlisi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.政策;权谋;保险单   (英语四级单词)
  • intercourse [´intəkɔ:s] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.交际;往来;交流   (英语四级单词)
  • traditional [trə´diʃənəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.传统的,习惯的   (英语四级单词)
  • overcame [,əuvə´keim] 移动到这儿单词发声  overcome的过去式   (英语四级单词)
  • accessible [ək´sesəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.易接近的;可到达的   (英语四级单词)
  • whence [wens] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.从何处;从那里   (英语四级单词)
  • detachment [di´tætʃmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.分开(离);分遣队   (英语四级单词)
  • roundabout [´raundəbaut] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.&n.间接的(方式)   (英语六级单词)
  • felicity [fi´lisiti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.幸福;(措词)适当   (英语六级单词)
  • suggestive [sə´dʒestiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.暗示的;启发的   (英语六级单词)
  • seaman [´si:mən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.海员,水手   (英语六级单词)
  • reconstruct [,ri:kən´strʌkt] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.修复;使再现   (英语六级单词)
  • perennial [pə´reniəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.长期的 n.多年生植物   (英语六级单词)
  • deficiency [di´fiʃənsi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.缺乏,不足,亏空   (英语六级单词)
  • heredity [hi´rediti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.遗传   (英语六级单词)
  • birthright [´bə:θrait] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.生来就有的权利   (英语六级单词)
  • fondness [´fɔndnis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.蠢事;溺爱;嗜好   (英语六级单词)
  • liking [´laikiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.爱好;嗜好;喜欢   (英语六级单词)
  • contracted [kən´træktid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.收缩了的;缩略的   (英语六级单词)
  • calling [´kɔ:liŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.点名;职业;欲望   (英语六级单词)
  • graduation [,grædʒu´eiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.毕业(典礼);刻度   (英语六级单词)
  • speaking [´spi:kiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.说话 a.发言的   (英语六级单词)

  • 上传人 欢乐鱼 分享于 2017-06-26 17:01:38
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