_The E. T. Earl Lectures_


By the Same Author

The American Mind

Park-Street Papers

John Greenleaf Whittier: A Memoir

Walt Whitman

The Amateur Spirit

A Study of Prose Fiction

The Powers at Play

The Plated City

Salem Kittredge and Other Stories

The Broughton House

The American Mind

By Bliss Perry

[Illustration: The Riverside Press]

Boston and New York

Houghton Mifflin Company




_Published October 1912_




_The material for this book was delivered as the E. T. Earl Lectures

for 1912 at the Pacific Theological Seminary, Berkeley, California, and

I wish to take this opportunity to express to the President and Faculty

of that institution my appreciation of their generous hospitality._

_The lectures were also given at the Lowell Institute, Boston, the

Brooklyn Institute, and elsewhere, under the title "American Traits in

American Literature." In revising them for publication a briefer title

has seemed desirable, and I have therefore availed myself of

Jefferson's phrase "The American Mind," as suggesting, more accurately

perhaps than the original title, the real theme of discussion._

B. P.











Race, Nation, and Book

Many years ago, as a student in a foreign university, I remember

attacking, with the complacency of youth, a German history of the

English drama, in six volumes. I lost courage long before the author

reached the age of Elizabeth, but I still recall the subject of the

opening chapter: it was devoted to the physicalgeography of Great

Britain. Writing, as the good German professor did, in the triumphant

hour of Taine's theory as to the significance of place, period, and

environment in determining the character of any literary production,

what could be more logical than to begin at the beginning? Have not the

chalk cliffs guarding the southern coast of England, have not the

fatness of the midland counties and the soft rainy climate of a North

Atlantic island, and the proud, tenacious, self-assertive folk that are

bred there, all left their trace upon _A Midsummer Night's Dream_, and

_Every Man in his Humour_ and _She Stoops to Conquer_? Undoubtedly.

Latitude and longitude, soil and rainfall and food-supply, racial

origins and crossings, political and social and economic conditions,

must assuredly leave their marks upon the mental and artistic

productiveness of a people and upon the personality of individual


Taine, who delighted to point out all this, and whose _English

Literature_ remains a monument of the defects as well as of the

advantages of his method, was of course not the inventor of the

climatic theory. It is older than Aristotle, who discusses it in his

treatise on _Politics_. It was a topic of interest to the scholars of

the Renaissance. Englishmen of the seventeenth century, with an unction

of pseudo-science added to their natural patriotism, discovered in the

English climate one of the reasons of England's greatness. Thomas

Sprat, writing in 1667 on the History of the Royal Society, waxes bold

and asserts: "If there can be a true character given of the Universal

Temper of any Nation under Heaven, then certainly this must be ascribed

to our countrymen, that they have commonly an unaffected sincerity,

that they love to deliver their minds with a sound simplicity, that

they have the middle qualities between the reserved, subtle southern

and the rough, unhewn northern people, that they are not extremely

prone to speak, that they are more concerned what others will think of

the strength than of the fineness of what they say, and that a

universal modesty possesses them. These qualities are so conspicuous

and proper to the soil that we often hear them objected to us by some

of our neighbor Satyrists in more disgraceful expressions.... Even the

position of our climate, the air, the influence of the heaven, the

composition of the English blood, as well as the embraces of the Ocean,

seem to join with the labours of the _Royal Society_ to render our

country a Land of Experimental Knowledge."

The excellent Sprat was the friend and executor of the poet Cowley, who

has in the Preface to his _Poems_ a charming passage about the relation

of literature to the external circumstances in which it is written.

"If _wit_ be such a _Plant_ that it scarce receives heat enough to keep

it alive even in the _summer_ of our cold _Clymate_, how can it choose

but wither in a long and a sharp _winter_? a warlike, various and a

tragical age is best to write _of_, but worst to write _in_." And he

adds this, concerning his own art of poetry: "There is nothing that

requires so much serenity and chearfulness of _spirit_; it must not be

either overwhelmed with the cares of _Life_, or overcast with the

_Clouds_ of _Melancholy_ and _Sorrow_, or shaken and disturbed with the

storms of injurious _Fortune_; it must, like the _Halcyon_, have fair

weather to breed in. The Soul must be filled with bright and delightful

_Idaeas_, when it undertakes to communicate delight to others, which is

the main end of _Poesie_. One may see through the stile of _Ovid de

Trist._, the humbled and dejected condition of _Spirit_ with which he

wrote it; there scarce remains any footstep of that _Genius_, _Quem nec

Jovis ira, nec ignes_, etc. The _cold_ of the country has strucken

through all his faculties, and benummed the very _feet_ of his


Madame de Stael's _Germany_, one of the most famous of the "national

character" books, begins with a description of the German landscape.

But though nobody, from Ovid in exile down to Madame de Stael,

questions the general significance of place, time, and circumstances as

affecting the nature of a literary product, when we come to the exact

and as it were mathematicaldemonstration of the precise workings of

these physical influences, our generation is distinctly more cautious

than were the literary critics of forty years ago. Indeed, it is a

hundred years since Fisher Ames, ridiculing the theory that climate

acts directly upon literary products, said wittily of Greece: "The figs

are as fine as ever, but where are the Pindars?" The theory of race, in

particular, has been sharply questioned by the experts. "Saxon" and

"Norman," for example, no longer seem to us such simple terms as

sufficed for the purpose of Scott's _Ivanhoe_ or of Thierry's _Norman

Conquest_, a book inspired by Scott's romance. The late Professor

Freeman, with characteristic bluntness, remarked of the latter book:

"Thierry says at the end of his work that there are no longer either

Normans or Saxons except in history.... But in Thierry's sense of the

word, it would be truer to say that there never were 'Normans' or

'Saxons' anywhere, save in the pages of romances like his own."

There is a brutal directness about this verdict upon a rival historian

which we shall probably persist in calling "Saxon"; but it is no worse

than the criticisms of Matthew Arnold's essay on "The Celtic Spirit"

made to-day by university professors who happen to know Old Irish at

first hand, and consequently consider Arnold's opinion on Celtic

matters to be hopelessly amateurish.

The wiser scepticism of our day concerning all hard-and-fast racial

distinctions has been admirably summed up by Josiah Royce. "A race

psychology," he declares, "is still a science for the future to

discover.... We do not scientifically know what the true racial

varieties of mental type really are. No doubt there are such varieties.

The judgment day, or the science of the future, may demonstrate what

they are. We are at present very ignorantregarding the whole matter."

Nowhere have the extravagances of the application of racial theories to

intellectual products been more pronounced than in the fields of art

and literature. Audiences listen to a waltz which the programme

declares to be an adaptation of a Hungarian folk-song, and though they

may be more ignorant of Hungary than Shakespeare was of Bohemia, they

have no hesitation in exclaiming: "How truly Hungarian this is!" Or,

it may be, how truly "Japanese" is this vase which was made in

Japan--perhaps for the American market; or how intensely "Russian" is

this melancholy tale by Turgenieff. This prompt deduction of racial

qualities from works of art which themselves give the critic all the

information he possesses about the races in question,--or, in other

words, the enthusiasticassertion that a thing is like itself,--is one

of the familiar notes of amateur criticism. It is travelling in a

circle, and the corregiosity of Corregio is the next station.

Blood tells, no doubt, and a masterpiece usually betrays some token of

the place and hour of its birth. A knowledge of the condition of

political parties in Athens in 416 B.C. adds immensely to the enjoyment

of the readers of Aristophanes; the fun becomes funnier and the daring

even more splendid than before. Moliere's training as an actor does

affect the dramaturgic quality of his comedies. All this is

demonstrable, and to the prevalentconsciousness of it our generation

is deeply indebted to Taine and his pupils. But before displaying

dogmatically the inevitable brandings of racial and national traits on

a national literature, before pointing to this and that unmistakable

evidence of local or temporal influence on the form or spirit of a

masterpiece, we are now inclined to make some distinct reservations.

These reservations are not without bearing upon our own literature in


There are, for instance, certain artists who seem to escape the

influences of the time-spirit. The most familiar example is that of

Keats. He can no doubt be assigned to the George the Fourth period by a

critical examination of his vocabulary, but the characteristic

political and social movements of that epoch in England left him almost

untouched. Edgar Allan Poe might have written some of his tales in the

seventeenth century or in the twentieth; he might, like Robert Louis

Stevenson, have written in Samoa rather than in the Baltimore,

Philadelphia, or New York of his day; his description of the Ragged

Mountains of Virginia, within very sight of the university which he

attended, was borrowed, in the good old convenient fashion, from

Macaulay; in fact, it requires something of Poe's own ingenuity to find

in Poe, who is one of the indubitable assets of American literature,

anything distinctly American.

Wholly aside from such spiritual insulation of the single writer,

there is the obvious fact that none of the arts, not even literature,

and not all of them together, can furnish a wholly adequate

representation of racial or national characteristics. It is well known

to-day that the so-called "classic" examples of Greek art, most of

which were brought to light and discoursed upon by critics from two to

four centuries ago, represent but a single phase of Greek feeling; and

that the Greeks, even in what we choose to call their most

characteristic period, had a distinctly "romantic" tendency which their

more recently discovered plastic art betrays. But even if we had all

the lost statues, plays, poems, and orations, all the Greek paintings

about which we know so little, and the Greek music about which we know

still less, does anybody suppose that this wealth of artistic

expression would furnish a whollysatisfactory notion of the racial and

psychological traits of the Greek people?

One may go even further. Does a truly national art exist anywhere,--an

art, that is to say, which conveys a trustworthy and adequate

expression of the national temper as a whole? We have but to reflect

upon the European and American judgments, during the last thirty

years, concerning the representative quality of the art of Japan, and

to observe how many of those facile generalizations about the Japanese

character, deduced from vases and prints and enamel, were smashed to

pieces by the Russo-Japanese War. This may illustrate the blunders of

foreign criticism, perhaps, rather than any inadequacy in the racially

representative character of Japanese art. But it is impossible that

critics, and artists themselves, should not err, in the conscious

endeavor to pronounce upon the infinitelycomplex materials with which

they are called upon to deal. We must confess that the expression of

racial and national characteristics, by means of only one art, such as

literature, or by all the arts together, is at best imperfect, and is

always likely to be misleading unless corroborated by other evidence.

For it is to be remembered that in literature, as in the other fields

of artistic activity, we are dealing with the question of form; of

securing a concrete and pleasurable embodiment of certain emotions. It

may well happen that literature not merely fails to give an adequate

report of the racial or national or personal emotions felt during a

given epoch, but that it fails to report these emotions at all. Not

only the "old, unhappy, far-off" things of racial experience, but the

new and delight-giving experiences of the hour, may lack their poet.

Widespread moods of public elation or wistfulness or depression have

passed without leaving a shadow upon the mirror of art. There was no

one to hold the mirror or even to fashion it. No note of Renaissance

criticism, whether in Italy, France, or England, is more striking, and

in a way more touching, than the universal feeling that in the

rediscovery of the classics men had found at last the "terms of art,"

the rules and methods of a game which they had long wished to be

playing. Englishmen and Frenchmen of the sixteenth century will not

allow that their powers are less virile, their emotions less eager,

than those of the Greeks and Romans. Only, lacking the very terms of

art, they had not been able to arrive at fit expression; the soul had

found no body wherewith to clothe itself into beauty. As they avowed in

all simplicity, they needed schoolmasters; the discipline of Aristotle

and Horace and Virgil; a body of critical doctrine, to teach them how

to express the France and England or Italy of their day, and thus give

permanence to their fleetingvision of the world. Naive as may have

been the Renaissance expression of this need of formal training, blind

as it frequently was to the beauty which we recognize in the

undisciplined vernacular literatures of mediaeval Europe, those groping

scholars were essentially right. No one can paint or compose by nature.

One must slowly master an art of expression.

Now through long periods of time, and over many vast stretches of

territory, as our own American writing abundantly witnesses, the whole

formal side of expression may be neglected. "Literature," in its

  • amateur [´æmətə, ,æmə´tə:] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.业余爱好者   (初中英语单词)
  • california [,kæli´fɔ:njə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.加利福尼亚   (初中英语单词)
  • institution [,insti´tju:ʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.建立;制定;制度   (初中英语单词)
  • generous [´dʒenərəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.慷慨的;丰盛的   (初中英语单词)
  • institute [´institju:t] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.学院 vt.建立;设置   (初中英语单词)
  • elsewhere [,elsweə] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.在别处;向别处   (初中英语单词)
  • desirable [di´zaiərəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.向往的;极好的   (初中英语单词)
  • therefore [´ðeəfɔ:] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.&conj.因此;所以   (初中英语单词)
  • phrase [freiz] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.短语;词组;措词   (初中英语单词)
  • romance [rəu´mæns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.中世纪骑士小说   (初中英语单词)
  • reaction [ri´ækʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.反应(力)   (初中英语单词)
  • physical [´fizikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.物质的;有形的   (初中英语单词)
  • writing [´raitiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.书写;写作;书法   (初中英语单词)
  • character [´kæriktə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.特性;性质;人物;字   (初中英语单词)
  • literary [´litərəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.文学(上)的   (初中英语单词)
  • beginning [bi´giniŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.开始,开端;起源   (初中英语单词)
  • climate [´klaimit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.气候;特殊气候地带   (初中英语单词)
  • rainfall [´reinfɔ:l] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.雨量   (初中英语单词)
  • mental [´mentl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.精神的;心理的   (初中英语单词)
  • personality [,pə:sə´næliti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.人;个性;人品;人物   (初中英语单词)
  • monument [´mɔnjumənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.纪念碑;古迹   (初中英语单词)
  • charming [´tʃɑ:miŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.可爱的;极好的   (初中英语单词)
  • literature [´litərətʃə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.文学;文献;著作   (初中英语单词)
  • scarce [skeəs, skers] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.缺乏的;稀有的   (初中英语单词)
  • poetry [´pəuitri] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.诗;诗意   (初中英语单词)
  • shaken [´ʃeikən] 移动到这儿单词发声  shake的过去分词   (初中英语单词)
  • description [di´skripʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.描写   (初中英语单词)
  • generation [,dʒenə´reiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.发生;世代;同龄人   (初中英语单词)
  • distinctly [di´stiŋktli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.清楚地,明晰地   (初中英语单词)
  • greece [gri:s] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.希腊   (初中英语单词)
  • sharply [´ʃɑ:pli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.锋利地;剧烈地   (初中英语单词)
  • anywhere [´eniweə] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.无论何处;任何地方   (初中英语单词)
  • ignorant [´ignərənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.无知的,愚昧的   (初中英语单词)
  • application [,æpli´keiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.申请;申请书;应用   (初中英语单词)
  • racial [´reiʃəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.种族的;人种的   (初中英语单词)
  • shakespeare [´ʃeikspiə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.莎士比亚   (初中英语单词)
  • critic [´kritik] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.批评家;吹毛求疵者   (初中英语单词)
  • criticism [´kritisizəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.批评;评论(文)   (初中英语单词)
  • distinct [di´stiŋkt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.清楚的;独特的   (初中英语单词)
  • instance [´instəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.例子,实例,例证   (初中英语单词)
  • examination [ig,zæmi´neiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.检查;考试;检验   (初中英语单词)
  • vocabulary [və´kæbjuləri, vəu-] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.词汇;词汇量   (初中英语单词)
  • virginia [və´dʒinjə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.佛吉尼亚(州)   (初中英语单词)
  • convenient [kən´vi:niənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.方便的   (初中英语单词)
  • spiritual [´spiritʃuəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.精神(上)的;神圣的   (初中英语单词)
  • obvious [´ɔbviəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.明显的;显而易见的   (初中英语单词)
  • wholly [´həul-li] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.完全,十足;统统   (初中英语单词)
  • tendency [´tendənsi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.趋势;倾向   (初中英语单词)
  • wealth [welθ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.财富,财产   (初中英语单词)
  • satisfactory [,sætis´fæktəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.令人满意的   (初中英语单词)
  • temper [´tempə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.韧度 v.锻炼;调和   (初中英语单词)
  • european [juərə´pi:ən] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.欧洲的 n.欧洲人   (初中英语单词)
  • illustrate [´iləstreit] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.加插图;举例说明   (初中英语单词)
  • complex [´kɔmpleks] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.复杂的 n.综合企业   (初中英语单词)
  • confess [kən´fes] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.供认;坦白;承认   (初中英语单词)
  • unhappy [ʌn´hæpi] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不幸的;不快乐的   (初中英语单词)
  • depression [di´preʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.沮丧,抑郁;萧条   (初中英语单词)
  • striking [´straikiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.显著的,明显的   (初中英语单词)
  • universal [,ju:ni´və:səl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.宇宙的;普遍的   (初中英语单词)
  • discipline [´disiplin] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.纪律;训练   (初中英语单词)
  • doctrine [´dɔktrin] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.教义;主义;学说   (初中英语单词)
  • vision [´viʒən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.视觉;想象力;幻影   (初中英语单词)
  • formal [´fɔ:məl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.正式的;外表的   (初中英语单词)
  • compose [kəm´pəuz] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.组成;创作;作曲   (初中英语单词)
  • pacific [pə´sifik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.和平的;温和的   (高中英语单词)
  • appreciation [ə,pri:ʃi´eiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.评价;感激   (高中英语单词)
  • publication [,pʌbli´keiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.发表;公布;发行   (高中英语单词)
  • geography [dʒi´ɔgrəfi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.地理(学)   (高中英语单词)
  • significance [sig´nifikəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.意义;重要性   (高中英语单词)
  • inventor [in´ventə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.发明者   (高中英语单词)
  • greatness [´greitnis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.巨大;高尚;卓越   (高中英语单词)
  • commonly [´kɔmənli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.一般地;通常   (高中英语单词)
  • simplicity [sim´plisiti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.简单;朴素   (高中英语单词)
  • concerned [kən´sə:nd] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有关的;担心的   (高中英语单词)
  • preface [´prefis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.序 v.开始;导致   (高中英语单词)
  • external [ik´stə:nəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.外部的;外面的   (高中英语单词)
  • wither [´wiðə] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.(使)枯萎(衰弱)   (高中英语单词)
  • concerning [kən´sə:niŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  prep.关于   (高中英语单词)
  • communicate [kə´mju:nikeit] 移动到这儿单词发声  vi.通讯;传达;传播   (高中英语单词)
  • footstep [´futstep] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.足迹,脚步声   (高中英语单词)
  • demonstration [,demən´streiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.证明;论证;示威   (高中英语单词)
  • characteristic [,kæriktə´ristik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.特有的 n.特性   (高中英语单词)
  • persist [pə´sist] 移动到这儿单词发声  vi.坚持;固执;持续   (高中英语单词)
  • consequently [´kɔnsikwəntli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.因此,所以   (高中英语单词)
  • demonstrate [´demənstreit] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.证明;表明;示威   (高中英语单词)
  • regarding [ri´gɑ:diŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  prep.关于   (高中英语单词)
  • pronounced [prə´naunst] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.发出音的;显著的   (高中英语单词)
  • hesitation [,hezi´teiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.犹豫,踌躇   (高中英语单词)
  • melancholy [´melənkəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.忧郁 a.忧郁的   (高中英语单词)
  • prompt [prɔmpt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.敏捷的 vt.促使   (高中英语单词)
  • enthusiastic [inθju:zi´æstik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.热情的,热心的   (高中英语单词)
  • athens [´æθinz] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.雅典   (高中英语单词)
  • consciousness [´kɔnʃəsnis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.意识;觉悟;知觉   (高中英语单词)
  • inevitable [i´nevitəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不可避免的   (高中英语单词)
  • bearing [´beəriŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.举止;忍耐;关系   (高中英语单词)
  • ingenuity [,indʒi´nju:iti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.创造性;机灵   (高中英语单词)
  • so-called [´sou ´kɔ:ld] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.所谓的,号称的   (高中英语单词)
  • artistic [ɑ:´tistik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.艺术的;有美感的   (高中英语单词)
  • dealing [´di:liŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.交易;来往   (高中英语单词)
  • concrete [´kɔŋkri:t] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.具体的 n.混凝土   (高中英语单词)
  • critical [´kritikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.批评的;关键性的   (高中英语单词)
  • theological [θiə´lɔdʒikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.神学(上)的   (英语四级单词)
  • satire [´sætaiə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.讽刺;讽刺作品   (英语四级单词)
  • fellowship [´feləuʃip] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.团体;伙伴关系;友谊   (英语四级单词)
  • devoted [di´vəutid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.献身…的,忠实的   (英语四级单词)
  • logical [´lɔdʒikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.逻辑(上)的   (英语四级单词)
  • midsummer [´mid,sʌmə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.仲夏;夏至   (英语四级单词)
  • assuredly [ə´ʃuəridli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.确实地;确信地   (英语四级单词)
  • delighted [di´laitid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.高兴的;喜欢的   (英语四级单词)
  • renaissance [rə´neisəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.复兴;复活;新生   (英语四级单词)
  • modesty [´mɔdisti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.谨慎;端庄;羞怯   (英语四级单词)
  • experimental [ik,speri´mentl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.实验的   (英语四级单词)
  • warlike [´wɔ:laik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.战争的;好战的   (英语四级单词)
  • injurious [in´dʒuəriəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.(中)伤的;腐败的   (英语四级单词)
  • precise [pri´sais] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.精确的;清楚的   (英语四级单词)
  • fisher [´fiʃə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.捕鱼人(船);鱼貂   (英语四级单词)
  • brutal [´bru:tl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.兽性的;残暴的   (英语四级单词)
  • verdict [´və:dikt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.裁决,判决;判定   (英语四级单词)
  • hopelessly [´həuplisli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.无希望地,绝望地   (英语四级单词)
  • adaptation [ædæp´teiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.适应;改写(本)   (英语四级单词)
  • intensely [in´tensli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.激烈地;热切地   (英语四级单词)
  • assertion [ə´sə:ʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.断言;主张;论述   (英语四级单词)
  • masterpiece [´mɑ:stəpi:s] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.杰作;杰出的事   (英语四级单词)
  • immensely [i´mensli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.极大地,无限地   (英语四级单词)
  • prevalent [´prevələnt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.流行的;普遍的   (英语四级单词)
  • enamel [i´næm(ə)l] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.搪瓷;珐琅   (英语四级单词)
  • infinitely [´infinitli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.无限地;无穷地   (英语四级单词)
  • imperfect [im´pə:fikt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不完全的;未完成的   (英语四级单词)
  • touching [´tʌtʃiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.动人的 prep.提到   (英语四级单词)
  • essentially [i´senʃəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.本质上,基本上   (英语四级单词)
  • riverside [´rivəsaid] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.河岸 a.河岸上的   (英语六级单词)
  • seminary [´seminəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.发源地;高等中学   (英语六级单词)
  • idealism [ai´diəlizəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.唯心主义;理想主义   (英语六级单词)
  • longitude [´lɔndʒitju:d] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.经度   (英语六级单词)
  • fineness [´fainnis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.美好;细微;优雅   (英语六级单词)
  • disgraceful [dis´greisful] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.可耻的;不光彩的   (英语六级单词)
  • executor [ig´zekjutə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.遗嘱执行人   (英语六级单词)
  • dejected [di´dʒektid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.垂头丧气的   (英语六级单词)
  • mathematical [,mæθə´mætikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.数学的;精确的   (英语六级单词)
  • wittily [´witili] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.机智地;幽默地   (英语六级单词)
  • calling [´kɔ:liŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.点名;职业;欲望   (英语六级单词)
  • admirably [´ædmərəbli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.令人钦佩地;极妙地   (英语六级单词)
  • hungary [´hʌŋgəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.匈牙利   (英语六级单词)
  • indebted [in´detid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.负债的;感恩的   (英语六级单词)
  • lacking [´lækiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.缺少的,没有的   (英语六级单词)
  • wherewith [wɛə´wiθ] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.用什么;用以   (英语六级单词)
  • fleeting [´fli:tiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.飞逝的,疾驰的   (英语六级单词)

  • 上传人 欢乐鱼 分享于 2017-06-26 17:19:33
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