On Liberty.

By John Stuart Mill.

With an Introduction by W. L. Courtney, LL.D.

The Walter Scott Publishing Co., Ltd.

London and Felling-on-Tyne

New York and Melbourne

_To the beloved and deplored memory of her who was the inspirer, and in

part the author, of all that is best in my writings--the friend and wife

whose exalted sense of truth and right was my strongest incitement, and

whose approbation was my chief reward--I dedicate this volume. Like all

that I have written for many years, it belongs as much to her as to me;

but the work as it stands has had, in a very insufficient degree, the

inestimable advantage of her revision; some of the most important

portions having been reserved for a more careful re-examination, which

they are now never destined to receive. Were I but capable of

interpreting to the world one-half the great thoughts and noble feelings

which are buried in her grave, I should be the medium of a greater

benefit to it than is ever likely to arise from anything that I can

write, unprompted and unassisted by her all but unrivalled wisdom._



John Stuart Mill was born on 20th May 1806. He was a delicate child, and

the extraordinary education designed by his father was not calculated to

develop and improve his physical powers. "I never was a boy," he says;

"never played cricket." His exercise was taken in the form of walks with

his father, during which the elder Mill lectured his son and examined

him on his work. It is idle to speculate on the possible results of a

different treatment. Mill remained delicate throughout his life, but was

endowed with that intensementalenergy which is so often combined with

physical weakness. His youth was sacrificed to an idea; he was designed

by his father to carry on his work; the individuality of the boy was

unimportant. A visit to the south of France at the age of fourteen, in

company with the family of General Sir Samuel Bentham, was not without

its influence. It was a glimpse of another atmosphere, though the

studious habits of his home life were maintained. Moreover, he derived

from it his interest in foreign politics, which remained one of his

characteristics to the end of his life. In 1823 he was appointed junior

clerk in the Examiners' Office at the India House.

Mill's first essays were written in the _Traveller_ about a year before

he entered the India House. From that time forward his literary work was

uninterrupted save by attacks of illness. His industry was stupendous.

He wrote articles on an infinitevariety of subjects, political,

metaphysical, philosophic, religious, poetical. He discovered Tennyson

for his generation, he influenced the writing of Carlyle's _French

Revolution_ as well as its success. And all the while he was engaged in

studying and preparing for his more ambitious works, while he rose step

by step at the India Office. His _Essays on Unsettled Questions in

Political Economy_ were written in 1831, although they did not appear

until thirteen years later. His _System of Logic_, the design of which

was even then fashioning itself in his brain, took thirteen years to

complete, and was actually published before the _Political Economy_. In

1844 appeared the article on Michelet, which its author anticipated

would cause some discussion, but which did not create the sensation he

expected. Next year there were the "Claims of Labour" and "Guizot," and

in 1847 his articles on Irish affairs in the _Morning Chronicle_. These

years were very much influenced by his friendship and correspondence

with Comte, a curious comradeship between men of such different

temperament. In 1848 Mill published his _Political Economy_, to which he

had given his serious study since the completion of his _Logic_. His

articles and reviews, though they involved a good deal of work--as, for

instance, the re-perusal of the _Iliad_ and the _Odyssey_ in the

original before reviewing Grote's _Greece_--were recreation to the

student. The year 1856 saw him head of the Examiners' Office in the

India House, and another two years brought the end of his official work,

owing to the transfer of India to the Crown. In the same year his wife

died. _Liberty_ was published shortly after, as well as the _Thoughts on

Parliamentary Reform_, and no year passed without Mill making important

contributions on the political, philosophical, and ethical questions of

the day.

Seven years after the death of his wife, Mill was invited to contest

Westminster. His feeling on the conduct of elections made him refuse to

take any personal action in the matter, and he gave the frankest

expression to his political views, but nevertheless he was elected by a

large majority. He was not a conventional success in the House; as a

speaker he lacked magnetism. But his influence was widely felt. "For the

sake of the House of Commons at large," said Mr. Gladstone, "I rejoiced

in his advent and deplored his disappearance. He did us all good." After

only three years in Parliament, he was defeated at the next General

Election by Mr. W. H. Smith. He retired to Avignon, to the pleasant

little house where the happiest years of his life had been spent in the

companionship of his wife, and continued his disinterested labours. He

completed his edition of his father's _Analysis of the Mind_, and also

produced, in addition to less important work, _The Subjection of Women_,

in which he had the active co-operation of his step-daughter. A book on

Socialism was under consideration, but, like an earlier study of

Sociology, it never was written. He died in 1873, his last years being

spent peacefully in the pleasant society of his step-daughter, from

whose tender care and earnestintellectualsympathy he caught maybe a

far-off reflection of the light which had irradiated his spiritual life.


The circumstances under which John Stuart Mill wrote his _Liberty_ are

largely connected with the influence which Mrs. Taylor wielded over his

career. The dedication is well known. It contains the most extraordinary

panegyric on a woman that any philosopher has ever penned. "Were I but

capable of interpreting to the world one-half the great thoughts and

noble feelings which are buried in her grave, I should be the medium of

a greater benefit to it than is ever likely to arise from anything that

I can write, unprompted and unassisted by her all but unrivalled

wisdom." It is easy for the ordinary worldly cynicism to curl a

sceptical lip over sentences like these. There may be exaggeration of

sentiment, the necessary and inevitablereaction of a man who was

trained according to the "dry light" of so unimpressionable a man as

James Mill, the father; but the passage quoted is not the only one in

which John Stuart Mill proclaims his unhesitating belief in the

intellectual influence of his wife. The treatise on _Liberty_ was

written especially under her authority and encouragement, but there are

many earlier references to the power which she exercised over his mind.

Mill was introduced to her as early as 1831, at a dinner-party at Mr.

Taylor's house, where were present, amongst others, Roebuck, W. J. Fox,

and Miss Harriet Martineau. The acquaintance rapidly ripened into

intimacy and the intimacy into friendship, and Mill was never weary of

expatiating on all the advantages of so singular a relationship. In some

of the presentation copies of his work on _Political Economy_, he wrote

the following dedication:--"To Mrs. John Taylor, who, of all persons

known to the author, is the most highly qualified either to originate or

to appreciatespeculation on social advancement, this work is with the

highest respect and esteem dedicated." An article on the enfranchisement

of women was made the occasion for another encomium. We shall hardly be

wrong in attributing a much later book, _The Subjection of Women_,

published in 1869, to the influence wielded by Mrs. Taylor. Finally, the

pages of the _Autobiography_ ring with the dithyrambic praise of his

"almost infallible counsellor."

The facts of this remarkableintimacy can easily be stated. The

deductions are more difficult. There is no question that Mill's

infatuation was the cause of considerable trouble to his acquaintances

and friends. His father openly taxed him with being in love with another

man's wife. Roebuck, Mrs. Grote, Mrs. Austin, Miss Harriet Martineau

were amongst those who suffered because they made some allusion to a

forbidden subject. Mrs. Taylor lived with her daughter in a lodging in

the country; but in 1851 her husband died, and then Mill made her his

wife. Opinions were widely divergent as to her merits; but every one

agreed that up to the time of her death, in 1858, Mill was wholly lost

to his friends. George Mill, one of Mill's younger brothers, gave it as

his opinion that she was a clever and remarkable woman, but "nothing

like what John took her to be." Carlyle, in his reminiscences, described

her with ambiguous epithets. She was "vivid," "iridescent," "pale and

passionate and sad-looking, a living-romance heroine of the royalist

volition and questionable destiny." It is not possible to make much of a

judgment like this, but we get on more certain ground when we discover

that Mrs. Carlyle said on one occasion that "she is thought to be

dangerous," and that Carlyle added that she was worse than dangerous,

she was patronising. The occasion when Mill and his wife were brought

into close contact with the Carlyles is well known. The manuscript of

the first volume of the _French Revolution_ had been lent to Mill, and

was accidentally burnt by Mrs. Mill's servant. Mill and his wife drove

up to Carlyle's door, the wife speechless, the husband so full of

conversation that he detained Carlyle with desperate attempts at

loquacity for two hours. But Dr. Garnett tells us, in his _Life of

Carlyle_, that Mill made a substantialreparation for the calamity for

which he was responsible by inducing the aggrieved author to accept half

of the L200 which he offered. Mrs. Mill, as I have said, died in 1858,

after seven years of happy companionship with her husband, and was

buried at Avignon. The inscription which Mill wrote for her grave is too

characteristic to be omitted:--"Her great and loving heart, her noble

soul, her clear, powerful, original, and comprehensive intellect, made

her the guide and support, the instructor in wisdom and the example in

goodness, as she was the sole earthly delight of those who had the

happiness to belong to her. As earnest for all public good as she was

generous and devoted to all who surrounded her, her influence has been

felt in many of the greatest improvements of the age, and will be in

those still to come. Were there even a few hearts and intellects like

hers, this earth would already become the hoped-for Heaven." These lines

prove the intensity of Mill's feeling, which is not afraid of abundant

verbiage; but they also prove that he could not imagine what the effect

would be on others, and, as Grote said, only Mill's reputation could

survive these and similar displays.

Every one will judge for himself of this romanticepisode in Mill's

career, according to such experience as he may possess of the

philosophic mind and of the value of these curious but not infrequent

relationships. It may have been a piece of infatuation, or, if we prefer

to say so, it may have been the most gracious and the most human page in

Mill's career. Mrs. Mill may have flattered her husband's vanity by

echoing his opinions, or she may have indeed been an Egeria, full of

inspiration and intellectual helpfulness. What usually happens in these

cases,--although the philosopher himself, through his belief in the

equality of the sexes, was debarred from thinking so,--is the extremely

valuable action and reaction of two different classes and orders of

mind. To any one whose thoughts have been occupied with the sphere of

abstract speculation, the lively and vivid presentment of concrete fact

comes as a delightful and agreeable shock. The instinct of the woman

often enables her not only to apprehend but to illustrate a truth for

which she would be totallyunable to give the adequate philosophic

reasoning. On the other hand, the man, with the more careful logical

methods and the slow processes of formal reasoning, is apt to suppose

that the happy intuition which leaps to the conclusion is really based

on the intellectual processes of which he is conscious in his own case.

Thus both parties to the happy contract are equally pleased. The

abstract truth gets the concrete illustration; the concrete illustration

finds its proper foundation in a series of abstract inquiries. Perhaps

Carlyle's epithets of "iridescent" and "vivid" refer incidentally to

Mrs. Mill's quick perceptiveness, and thus throw a useful light on the

mutual advantages of the common work of husband and wife. But it savours

almost of impertinence even to attempt to lift the veil on a mystery

like this. It is enough to say, perhaps, that however much we may

deplore the exaggeration of Mill's references to his wife, we recognise

that, for whatever reason, the pair lived an ideally happy life.

It still, however, remains to estimate the extent to which Mrs. Taylor,

both before and after her marriage with Mill, made actual contributions

to his thoughts and his public work. Here I may be perhaps permitted to

avail myself of what I have already written in a previous work.[1] Mill

gives us abundant help in this matter in the _Autobiography_. When first

he knew her, his thoughts were turning to the subject of Logic. But his

published work on the subject owed nothing to her, he tells us, in its

doctrines. It was Mill's custom to write the whole of a book so as to

get his general scheme complete, and then laboriously to re-write it in

order to perfect the phrases and the composition. Doubtless Mrs. Taylor

was of considerable help to him as a critic of style. But to be a critic

of doctrine she was hardly qualified. Mill has made some clear

admissions on this point. "The only actual revolution which has ever

taken place in my modes of thinking was already complete,"[2] he says,

before her influence became paramount. There is a curiously humble

estimate of his own powers (to which Dr. Bain has called attention),

which reads at first sight as if it contradicted this. "During the

greater part of my literary life I have performed the office in relation

to her, which, from a rather early period, I had considered as the most

useful part that I was qualified to take in the domain of thought, that

of an interpreter of original thinkers, and mediator between them and

the public." So far it would seem that Mill had sat at the feet of his

oracle; but observe the highly remarkableexception which is made in the

following sentence:--"For I had always a humble opinion of my own powers

as an original thinker, _except in abstract science (logic, metaphysics,

and the theoretic principles of political economy and politics.)_"[3] If

Mill then was an original thinker in logic, metaphysics, and the science

of economy and politics, it is clear that he had not learnt these from

her lips. And to most men logic and metaphysics may be safely taken as

forming a domain in which originality of thought, if it can be honestly

professed, is a sufficient title of distinction.

Mrs. Taylor's assistance in the _Political Economy_ is confined to

certain definite points. The purelyscientific part was, we are assured,

not learnt from her. "But it was chiefly her influence which gave to the

book that general tone by which it is distinguished from all previous

expositions of political economy that had any pretensions to be

scientific, and which has made it so useful in conciliating minds which

those previous expositions had repelled. This tone consisted chiefly in

making the proper distinction between the laws of the production of

wealth, which are real laws of Nature, dependent on the properties of

objects, and the modes of its distribution, which, subject to certain

conditions, depend on human will.... _I had indeed partiallylearnt this

view of things from the thoughts awakened in me by the speculations of

St. Simonians_; but it was made a living principle, pervading and

animating the book, by my wife's promptings."[4] The part which is

italicised is noticeable. Here, as elsewhere, Mill thinks out the matter

by himself; the concrete form of the thoughts is suggested or prompted

by the wife. Apart from this "general tone," Mill tells us that there

was a specific contribution. "The chapter which has had a greater

influence on opinion than all the rest, that on the Probable Future of

the Labouring Classes, is entirely due to her. In the first draft of the

book that chapter did not exist. She pointed out the need of such a

chapter, and the extreme imperfection of the book without it; she was

  • introduction [,intrə´dʌkʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.介绍;引言;引导   (初中英语单词)
  • beloved [bi´lʌvd] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.为….所爱的 n.爱人   (初中英语单词)
  • volume [´vɔlju:m, ´vɑljəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.卷;书籍;体积;容量   (初中英语单词)
  • advantage [əd´vɑ:ntidʒ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.优势;利益   (初中英语单词)
  • capable [´keipəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有能力;能干的   (初中英语单词)
  • medium [´mi:diəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.中间;平均 a.中等的   (初中英语单词)
  • delicate [´delikət] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.精美的;微妙的   (初中英语单词)
  • extraordinary [ik´strɔ:dinəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.非常的;额外的   (初中英语单词)
  • physical [´fizikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.物质的;有形的   (初中英语单词)
  • treatment [´tri:tmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.待遇;对待;治疗   (初中英语单词)
  • mental [´mentl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.精神的;心理的   (初中英语单词)
  • energy [´enədʒi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.活力,精力;能力   (初中英语单词)
  • weakness [´wi:knis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.虚弱;弱点,缺点   (初中英语单词)
  • glimpse [glimps] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&v.瞥见   (初中英语单词)
  • atmosphere [´ætməsfiə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.大气;空气;气氛   (初中英语单词)
  • moreover [mɔ:´rəuvə] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.再者,此外,而且   (初中英语单词)
  • politics [´pɔlitiks] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.政治(学);政治活动   (初中英语单词)
  • literary [´litərəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.文学(上)的   (初中英语单词)
  • illness [´ilnis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.生病,不健康,疾病   (初中英语单词)
  • variety [və´raiəti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.变化;多样(性);种类   (初中英语单词)
  • generation [,dʒenə´reiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.发生;世代;同龄人   (初中英语单词)
  • writing [´raitiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.书写;写作;书法   (初中英语单词)
  • ambitious [æm´biʃəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有雄心的;热望的   (初中英语单词)
  • actually [´æktʃuəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.事实上;实际上   (初中英语单词)
  • discussion [di´skʌʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.讨论;辩论   (初中英语单词)
  • sensation [sen´seiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.感觉;轰动;轰动一时   (初中英语单词)
  • transfer [træns´fə:] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.&n.迁移;调动;转让   (初中英语单词)
  • shortly [´ʃɔ:tli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.立刻,马上;不久   (初中英语单词)
  • nevertheless [,nevəðə´les] 移动到这儿单词发声  conj.&ad.然而;不过   (初中英语单词)
  • parliament [´pɑ:ləmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.议(国)会   (初中英语单词)
  • addition [ə´diʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.加;加法;附加物   (初中英语单词)
  • consideration [kən,sidə´reiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.考虑;原因;体谅   (初中英语单词)
  • earnest [´ə:nist] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.认真的 n.认真;诚恳   (初中英语单词)
  • sympathy [´simpəθi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.同情,怜悯   (初中英语单词)
  • reflection [ri´flekʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.反射;映象;想法   (初中英语单词)
  • spiritual [´spiritʃuəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.精神(上)的;神圣的   (初中英语单词)
  • reaction [ri´ækʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.反应(力)   (初中英语单词)
  • belief [bi´li:f] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.相信;信仰,信条   (初中英语单词)
  • acquaintance [ə´kweintəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.相识;熟人,相识的人   (初中英语单词)
  • appreciate [ə´pri:ʃieit] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.评价;珍惜;感激   (初中英语单词)
  • remarkable [ri´mɑ:kəbl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.值得注意的;显著的   (初中英语单词)
  • considerable [kən´sidərəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.重要的;值得重视   (初中英语单词)
  • wholly [´həul-li] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.完全,十足;统统   (初中英语单词)
  • contact [´kɔntækt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.接触;联系 v.联络   (初中英语单词)
  • desperate [´despərit] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.拼死的;绝望的   (初中英语单词)
  • responsible [ri´spɔnsəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.尽责的;责任重大的   (初中英语单词)
  • instructor [in´strʌktə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.教师;指导者   (初中英语单词)
  • wisdom [´wizdəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.智慧,聪明,才智   (初中英语单词)
  • romantic [rəu´mæntik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.传奇(式)的;浪漫的   (初中英语单词)
  • gracious [´greiʃəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.和蔼可亲的;任慈的   (初中英语单词)
  • career [kə´riə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.经历;生涯;职业   (初中英语单词)
  • vanity [´væniti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.虚荣;自负;空虚   (初中英语单词)
  • lively [´laivli] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.活泼的;热烈的   (初中英语单词)
  • delightful [di´laitful] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.讨人喜欢的   (初中英语单词)
  • agreeable [ə´gri:əbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.适合的;符合的   (初中英语单词)
  • instinct [´instiŋkt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.本能;直觉;天资   (初中英语单词)
  • illustrate [´iləstreit] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.加插图;举例说明   (初中英语单词)
  • unable [ʌn´eibəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不能的;无能为力的   (初中英语单词)
  • adequate [´ædikwit] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.足够的;适当的   (初中英语单词)
  • formal [´fɔ:məl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.正式的;外表的   (初中英语单词)
  • conclusion [kən´klu:ʒən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.结束;结论;推论   (初中英语单词)
  • conscious [´kɔnʃəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.意识的;自觉的   (初中英语单词)
  • equally [´i:kwəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.相等地;平等地   (初中英语单词)
  • illustration [,ilə´streiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.插图,图解,例证   (初中英语单词)
  • foundation [faun´deiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.建立;基金;地基   (初中英语单词)
  • series [´siəri:z] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.连续;系列;丛书   (初中英语单词)
  • whatever [wɔt´evə] 移动到这儿单词发声  pron.&a.无论什么   (初中英语单词)
  • estimate [´estimət, ´estimeit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.估计;评价 vt.估价   (初中英语单词)
  • extent [ik´stent] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.长度;程度;范围   (初中英语单词)
  • actual [´æktʃuəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.现实的;实际的   (初中英语单词)
  • previous [´pri:viəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.先,前,以前的   (初中英语单词)
  • abundant [ə´bʌndənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.丰富的;充分的   (初中英语单词)
  • scheme [ski:m] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.计划;阴谋,诡计   (初中英语单词)
  • doubtless [´dautlis] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.无疑地;大概,多半   (初中英语单词)
  • critic [´kritik] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.批评家;吹毛求疵者   (初中英语单词)
  • doctrine [´dɔktrin] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.教义;主义;学说   (初中英语单词)
  • curiously [´kjuəriəsli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.好奇地;稀奇古怪地   (初中英语单词)
  • interpreter [in´tə:pritə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.译员;解释者;翻译器   (初中英语单词)
  • exception [ik´sepʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.例外;反对,异议   (初中英语单词)
  • humble [´hʌmbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.谦卑的 vt.贬抑   (初中英语单词)
  • economy [i´kɔnəmi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.经济;机制;组织   (初中英语单词)
  • learnt [lə:nt] 移动到这儿单词发声  learn 的过去式(分词)   (初中英语单词)
  • safely [´seifli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.安全地;平安地   (初中英语单词)
  • assistance [ə´sistəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.协作;援助;帮助   (初中英语单词)
  • definite [´definit] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.确定的,明确的   (初中英语单词)
  • purely [´pjuəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.仅仅;简单地   (初中英语单词)
  • scientific [,saiən´tifik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.科学(上)的   (初中英语单词)
  • chiefly [´tʃi:fli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.主要地;尤其   (初中英语单词)
  • distinction [di´stiŋkʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.差别;特征;卓越   (初中英语单词)
  • distribution [,distri´bju:ʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.分配;分布(状态)   (初中英语单词)
  • elsewhere [,elsweə] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.在别处;向别处   (初中英语单词)
  • probable [´prɔbəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.大概的n.很可能的事   (初中英语单词)
  • pointed [´pɔintid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.尖(锐)的;中肯的   (初中英语单词)
  • extreme [ik´stri:m] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.尽头的 n.极端   (初中英语单词)
  • dedicate [´dedikeit] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.献给;献身于   (高中英语单词)
  • intense [in´tens] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.强烈的;紧张的   (高中英语单词)
  • infinite [´infinit] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.无限的,无穷的   (高中英语单词)
  • recreation [,rekri´eiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.消遣;休养   (高中英语单词)
  • edition [i´diʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.版本;很相似的   (高中英语单词)
  • intellectual [,inti´lektʃuəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.知识分子   (高中英语单词)
  • philosopher [fi´lɔsəfə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.哲学家;思想家;哲人   (高中英语单词)
  • inevitable [i´nevitəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不可避免的   (高中英语单词)
  • encouragement [in´kʌridʒmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.鼓励;赞助;引诱   (高中英语单词)
  • amongst [ə´mʌŋst] 移动到这儿单词发声  prep.其中之一 =among   (高中英语单词)
  • singular [´siŋgjulə] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.单一的;非凡的   (高中英语单词)
  • relationship [ri´leiʃənʃip] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.关系;联系;亲属关系   (高中英语单词)
  • originate [ə´ridʒineit] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.发源;创造;引起   (高中英语单词)
  • speculation [,spekju´leiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.思索,推测;投机   (高中英语单词)
  • esteem [i´sti:m] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.尊重 vt.认为;感到   (高中英语单词)
  • openly [´əupənli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.公开地;直率地   (高中英语单词)
  • lodging [´lɔdʒiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.寄宿,住宿   (高中英语单词)
  • manuscript [´mænjuskript] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.手抄的 n.手稿   (高中英语单词)
  • substantial [səb´stænʃəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.实质的,真的   (高中英语单词)
  • companionship [kəm´pæniənʃip] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.伴侣关系;友谊   (高中英语单词)
  • inscription [in´skripʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.题名;题字;碑文   (高中英语单词)
  • loving [´lʌviŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.爱的,有爱情的   (高中英语单词)
  • comprehensive [,kɔmpri´hensiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.综合的;理解的   (高中英语单词)
  • earthly [´ə:θli] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.地球的;世俗的   (高中英语单词)
  • intensity [in´tensiti] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.激烈;强度;深度   (高中英语单词)
  • sphere [sfiə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.圆体;天体;范围   (高中英语单词)
  • concrete [´kɔŋkri:t] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.具体的 n.混凝土   (高中英语单词)
  • reasoning [´ri:zəniŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.推理,评理 a.推理的   (高中英语单词)
  • composition [,kɔmpə´ziʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.写作;作曲;作品   (高中英语单词)
  • distinguished [di´stiŋgwiʃt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.卓越的,著名的   (高中英语单词)
  • dependent [di´pendənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.依赖的;从属的   (高中英语单词)
  • specific [spi´sifik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.具体的;特有的   (高中英语单词)
  • contribution [,kɔntri´bju:ʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.贡献;捐献;投稿   (高中英语单词)
  • completion [kəm´pli:ʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.完成;完整   (英语四级单词)
  • conventional [kən´venʃənəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.常规的;协定的   (英语四级单词)
  • advent [´ædvent] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.来临;降临   (英语四级单词)
  • worldly [´wə:ldli] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.现世的;世俗的   (英语四级单词)
  • treatise [´tri:tiz, -tis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.(专题)论文   (英语四级单词)
  • intimacy [´intiməsi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.亲密;熟悉;秘密   (英语四级单词)
  • presentation [,prezən´teiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.介绍;赠送;提出   (英语四级单词)
  • advancement [əd´vɑ:nsmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.前进;促进;提升   (英语四级单词)
  • allusion [ə´lu:ʒən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.暗指;提及;引喻   (英语四级单词)
  • heroine [´herəuin] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.女英雄;女主人公   (英语四级单词)
  • speechless [´spi:tʃləs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.说不出话的   (英语四级单词)
  • reparation [,repə´reiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.补偿;补救   (英语四级单词)
  • calamity [kə´læmiti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.灾害,大灾难   (英语四级单词)
  • intellect [´intilekt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.智力;有才智的人   (英语四级单词)
  • devoted [di´vəutid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.献身…的,忠实的   (英语四级单词)
  • reputation [repju´teiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.名誉;名声;信誉   (英语四级单词)
  • episode [´episəud] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.插曲;一段情节   (英语四级单词)
  • apprehend [,æpri´hend] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.理解;忧虑;逮捕   (英语四级单词)
  • totally [´təutəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.统统,完全   (英语四级单词)
  • abstract [´æbstrækt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.抽象的 n.提要   (英语四级单词)
  • incidentally [,insi´dentəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.顺便一提;偶然地   (英语四级单词)
  • domain [də´mein,dəu-] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.领土;版图;范围   (英语四级单词)
  • partially [´pɑ:ʃəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.部分地;局部地   (英语四级单词)
  • noticeable [´nəutisəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.显著的;值得注意的   (英语四级单词)
  • insufficient [,insə´fiʃənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不足的,无能的   (英语六级单词)
  • revision [ri´viʒən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.修订(本);修改   (英语六级单词)
  • speculate [´spekjuleit] 移动到这儿单词发声  vi.思索;推测;投机   (英语六级单词)
  • individuality [,individʒu´æləti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.个性;特征   (英语六级单词)
  • poetical [pəu´etikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.理想化了的   (英语六级单词)
  • philosophical [,filə´sɔfikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.哲学(上)的;冷静的   (英语六级单词)
  • magnetism [´mægnitizəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.磁性,磁力,吸引力   (英语六级单词)
  • disappearance [,disə´piərəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.消失;失踪   (英语六级单词)
  • retired [ri´taiəd] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.退休的;通职的   (英语六级单词)
  • peacefully [´pisfuli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.平静地;安宁地   (英语六级单词)
  • exaggeration [ig,zædʒə´reiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.夸张,夸大   (英语六级单词)
  • infallible [in´fæləbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.必然的;不会错的   (英语六级单词)
  • questionable [´kwestʃənəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.可疑的,不可靠的   (英语六级单词)
  • accidentally [,æksi´dentəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.偶然地   (英语六级单词)
  • paramount [´pærəmaunt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.最高的 n.元首   (英语六级单词)
  • originality [ə,ridʒi´næliti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.独创性;创举;新颖   (英语六级单词)

  • 上传人 欢乐鱼 分享于 2017-06-26 17:25:17
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