By Charles Dudley Warner

Our theme for the hour is the American Newspaper. It is a subject in

which everybody is interested, and about which it is not polite to say

that anybody is not well informed; for, although there are scattered

through the land many persons, I am sorry to say, unable to pay for a

newspaper, I have never yet heard of anybody unable to edit one.

The topic has many points of view, and invites various study and comment.

In our limited time we must select one only. We have heard a great deal

about the power, the opportunity, the duty, the "mission," of the press.

The time has come for a more philosophicaltreatment of it, for an

inquiry into its relations to our complex civilization, for some ethical

account of it as one of the developments of our day, and for some

discussion of the effect it is producing, and likely to produce, on the

education of the people. Has the time come, or is it near at hand, when

we can point to a person who is alert, superficial, ready and shallow,

self-confident and half-informed, and say, "There is a product of the

American newspaper"? The newspaper is not a willful creation, nor an

isolated phenomenon, but the legitimateoutcome of our age, as much as

our system of popular education. And I trust that some competent observer

will make, perhaps for this association, a philosophical study of it. My

task here is a much humbler one. I have thought that it may not be

unprofitable to treat the newspaper from a practical and even somewhat

mechanical point of view.

The newspaper is a private enterprise. Its object is to make money for

its owner. Whatever motive may be given out for starting a newspaper,

expectation of profit by it is the real one, whether the newspaper is

religious, political, scientific, or literary. The exceptional cases of

newspapers devoted to ideas or "causes" without regard to profit are so

few as not to affect the rule. Commonly, the cause, the sect, the party,

the trade, the delusion, the idea, gets its newspaper, its organ, its

advocate, only when some individual thinks he can see a pecuniary return

in establishing it.

This motive is not lower than that which leads people into any other

occupation or profession. To make a living, and to have a career, is the

original incentive in all cases. Even in purely philanthropical

enterprises the driving-wheel that keeps them in motion for any length of

time is the salary paid the working members. So powerful is this

incentive that sometimes the wheel will continue to turn round when there

is no grist to grind. It sometimes happens that the friction of the

philanthropic machinery is so great that but very little power is

transmitted to the object for which the machinery was made. I knew a

devoted agent of the American Colonization Society, who, for several

years, collected in Connecticut just enough, for the cause, to buy his

clothes, and pay his board at a good hotel.

It is scarcely necessary to say, except to prevent a possible

misapprehension, that the editor who has no high ideals, no intention of

benefiting his fellow-men by his newspaper, and uses it unscrupulously as

a means of money-making only, sinks to the level of the physician and the

lawyer who have no higher conception of their callings than that they

offer opportunities for getting money by appeals to credulity, and by

assisting in evasions of the law.

If the excellence of a newspaper is not always measured by its

profitableness, it is generally true that, if it does not pay its owner,

it is valueless to the public. Not all newspapers which make money are

good, for some succeed by catering to the lowest tastes of respectable

people, and to the prejudice, ignorance, and passion of the lowest class;

but, as a rule, the successful journal pecuniarily is the best journal.

The reasons for this are on the surface. The impecunious newspaper cannot

give its readers promptly the news, nor able discussion of the news, and,

still worse, it cannot be independent. The political journal that relies

for support upon drippings of party favor or patronage, the general

newspaper that finds it necessary to existence to manipulate stock

reports, the religious weekly that draws precarious support from puffing

doubtful enterprises, the literary paper that depends upon the approval

of publishers, are poor affairs, and, in the long run or short run, come

to grief. Some newspapers do succeed by sensationalism, as some preachers

do; by a kind of quackery, as some doctors do; by trimming and shifting

to any momentary popular prejudice, as some politicians do; by becoming

the paid advocate of a personal ambition or a corporate enterprise, as

some lawyers do: but the newspaper only becomes a real power when it is

able, on the basis of pecuniary independence, to free itself from all

such entanglements. An editor who stands with hat in hand has the respect

accorded to any other beggar.

The recognition of the fact that the newspaper is a private and purely

business enterprise will help to define the mutual relations of the

editor and the public. His claim upon the public is exactly that of any

manufacturer or dealer. It is that of the man who makes cloth, or the

grocer who opens a shop--neither has a right to complain if the public

does not buy of him. If the buyer does not like a cloth half shoddy, or

coffee half-chicory, he will go elsewhere. If the subscriber does not

like one newspaper, he takes another, or none. The appeal for newspaper

support on the ground that such a journal ought to be sustained by an

enlightened community, or on any other ground than that it is a good

article that people want,--or would want if they knew its value,--is

purely childish in this age of the world. If any person wants to start a

periodical devoted to decorated teapots, with the noble view of inducing

the people to live up to his idea of a teapot, very good; but he has no

right to complain if he fails.

On the other hand, the public has no rights in the newspaper except what

it pays for; even the "old subscriber" has none, except to drop the paper

if it ceases to please him. The notion that the subscriber has a right to

interfere in the conduct of the paper, or the reader to direct its

opinions, is based on a misconception of what the newspaper is. The claim

of the public to have its communications printed in the paper is equally

baseless. Whether they shall be printed or not rests in the discretion of

the editor, having reference to his own private interest, and to his

apprehension of the public good. Nor is he bound to give any reason for

his refusal. It is purely in his discretion whether he will admit a reply

to any thing that has appeared in his columns. No one has a right to

demand it. Courtesy and policy may grant it; but the right to it does not

exist. If any one is injured, he may seek his remedy at law; and I should

like to see the law of libel such and so administered that any person

injured by a libel in the newspaper, as well as by slander out of it,

could be sure of prompt redress. While the subscribes acquires no right

to dictate to the newspaper, we can imagine an extreme case when he

should have his money back which had been paid in advance, if the

newspaper totally changed its character. If he had contracted with a

dealer to supply him with hard coal during the winter, he might have a

remedy if the dealer delivered only charcoal in the coldest weather; and

so if he paid for a Roman Catholic journal which suddenly became an organ

of the spiritists.

The advertiser acquires no more rights in the newspaper than the

subscriber. He is entitled to use the space for which he pays by the

insertion of such material as is approved by the editor. He gains no

interest in any other part of the paper, and has no more claim to any

space in the editorial columns, than any other one of the public. To give

him such space would be unbusiness-like, and the extension of a

preference which would be unjust to the rest of the public. Nothing more

quickly destroys the character of a journal, begets distrust of it, and

so reduces its value, than the well-founded suspicion that its editorial

columns are the property of advertisers. Even a religious journal will,

after a while, be injured by this.

Yet it must be confessed that here is one of the greatest difficulties of

modern journalism. The newspaper must be cheap. It is, considering the

immense cost to produce it, the cheapest product ever offered to man.

Most newspapers cost more than they sell for; they could not live by

subscriptions; for any profits, they certainly depend upon

advertisements. The advertisements depend upon the circulation; the

circulation is likely to dwindle if too much space is occupied by

advertisements, or if it is evident that the paper belongs to its favored

advertisers. The counting-room desires to conciliate the advertisers; the

editor looks to making a paper satisfactory to his readers. Between this

see-saw of the necessary subscriber and the necessary advertiser, a good

many newspapers go down. This difficulty would be measurably removed by

the admission of the truth that the newspaper is a strictly business

enterprise, depending for success upon a 'quid pro quo' between all

parties connected with it, and upon integrity in its management.

Akin to the false notion that the newspaper is a sort of open channel

that the public may use as it chooses, is the conception of it as a

charitable institution. The newspaper, which is the property of a private

person as much as a drug-shop is, is expected to perform for nothing

services which would be asked of no other private person. There is

scarcely a charitableenterprise to which it is not asked to contribute

of its space, which is money, ten times more than other persons in the

community, who are ten times as able as the owner of the newspaper,

contribute. The journal is considered "mean" if it will not surrender its

columns freely to notices and announcements of this sort. If a manager

has a new hen-coop or a new singer he wishes to introduce to the public,

he comes to the newspaper, expecting to have his enterprise extolled for

nothing, and probably never thinks that it would be just as proper for

him to go to one of the regular advertisers in the paper and ask him to

give up his space. Anything, from a church picnic to a brass-band concert

for the benefit of the widow of the triangles, asks the newspaper to

contribute. The party in politics, whose principles the editor advocates,

has no doubt of its rightful claim upon him, not only upon the editorial

columns, but upon the whole newspaper. It asks without hesitation that

the newspaper should take up its valuable space by printing hundreds and

often thousands of dollars' worth of political announcements in the

course of a protracted campaign, when it never would think of getting its

halls, its speakers, and its brass bands, free of expense. Churches, as

well as parties, expect this sort of charity. I have known rich churches,

to whose members it was a convenience to have their Sunday and other

services announced, withdraw the announcements when the editor declined

any longer to contribute a weekly fifty-cents' worth of space. No private

persons contribute so much to charity, in proportion to ability, as the

newspaper. Perhaps it will get credit for this in the next world: it

certainly never does in this.

The chief function of the newspaper is to collect and print the news.

Upon the kind of news that should be gathered and published, we shall

remark farther on. The second function is to elucidate the news, and

comment on it, and show its relations. A third function is to furnish

reading-matter to the general public.

Nothing is so difficult for the manager as to know what news is: the

instinct for it is a sort of sixth sense. To discern out of the mass of

materials collected not only what is most likely to interest the public,

but what phase and aspect of it will attract most attention, and the

relative importance of it; to tell the day before or at midnight what the

world will be talking about in the morning, and what it will want the

fullest details of, and to meet that want in advance,--requires a

peculiar talent. There is always some topic on which the public wants

instant information. It is easy enough when the news is developed, and

everybody is discussing it, for the editor to fall in; but the success of

the news printed depends upon a pre-apprehension of all this. Some

papers, which nevertheless print all the news, are always a day behind,

do not appreciate the popular drift till it has gone to something else,

and err as much by clinging to a subject after it is dead as by not

taking it up before it was fairly born. The public craves eagerly for

only one thing at a time, and soon wearies of that; and it is to the

newspaper's profit to seize the exact point of a debate, the thrilling

moment of an accident, the pith of an important discourse; to throw

itself into it as if life depended on it, and for the hour to flood the

popular curiosity with it as an engine deluges a fire.

Scarcely less important than promptly seizing and printing the news is

the attractivearrangement of it, its effectivepresentation to the eye.

Two papers may have exactly the same important intelligence, identically

the same despatches: the one will be called bright, attractive, "newsy";

the other, dull and stupid.

We have said nothing yet about that, which, to most people, is the most

important aspect of the newspaper,--the editor's responsibility to the

public for its contents. It is sufficient briefly to say here, that it is

exactly the responsibility of every other person in society,--the full

responsibility of his opportunity. He has voluntarily taken a position in

which he can do a great deal of good or a great deal of evil, and he,

should be held and judged by his opportunity: it is greater than that of

the preacher, the teacher, the congressman, the physician. He occupies

the loftiest pulpit; he is in his teacher's desk seven days in the week;

his voice can be heard farther than that of the most lusty fog-horn

politician; and often, I am sorry to say, his columns outshine the

shelves of the druggist in display of proprietary medicines. Nothing else

ever invented has the public attention as the newspaper has, or is an

influence so constant and universal. It is this large opportunity that

has given the impression that the newspaper is a public rather than a

private enterprise.

It was a nebulous but suggestive remark that the newspaper occupies the

borderland between literature and common sense. Literature it certainly

is not, and in the popular apprehension it seems often too erratic and

variable to be credited with the balance-wheel of sense; but it must have

something of the charm of the one, and the steadiness and sagacity of the

other, or it will fail to please. The model editor, I believe, has yet to

appear. Notwithstanding the traditionalreputation of certain editors in

the past, they could not be called great editors by our standards; for

the elements of modern journalism did not exist in their time. The old

newspaper was a broadside of stale news, with a moral essay attached.

Perhaps Benjamin Franklin, with our facilities, would have been very near

the ideal editor. There was nothing he did not wish to know; and no one

excelled him in the ability to communicate what he found out to the

average mind. He came as near as anybody ever did to marrying common

sense to literature: he had it in him to make it sufficient for

journalistic purposes. He was what somebody said Carlyle was, and what

the American editor ought to be,--a vernacular man.

The assertion has been made recently, publicly, and with evidence

adduced, that the American newspaper is the best in the world. It is like

the assertion that the American government is the best in the world; no

doubt it is, for the American people.

Judged by broad standards, it may safely be admitted that the American

newspaper is susceptible of some improvement, and that it has something

to learn from the journals of other nations. We shall be better employed

in correcting its weaknesses than in complacently contemplating its


Let us examine it in its three departments already named,--its news,

editorials, and miscellaneous reading-matter.

In particularity and comprehensiveness of news-collecting, it may be

admitted that the American newspapers for a time led the world. I mean in

the picking-up of local intelligence, and the use of the telegraph to

make it general. And with this arose the odd notion that news is made

important by the mere fact of its rapid transmission over the wire. The

English journals followed, speedily overtook, and some of the wealthier

ones perhaps surpassed, the American in the use of the telegraph, and in

  • polite [pə´lait] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有礼貌的;温和的   (初中英语单词)
  • unable [ʌn´eibəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不能的;无能为力的   (初中英语单词)
  • treatment [´tri:tmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.待遇;对待;治疗   (初中英语单词)
  • complex [´kɔmpleks] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.复杂的 n.综合企业   (初中英语单词)
  • civilization [,sivilai´zeiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.文明,文化   (初中英语单词)
  • creation [kri´eiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.创作;作品;创造   (初中英语单词)
  • system [´sistəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.系统,体系,制度   (初中英语单词)
  • enterprise [´entəpraiz] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.企业;雄心;胆识   (初中英语单词)
  • whatever [wɔt´evə] 移动到这儿单词发声  pron.&a.无论什么   (初中英语单词)
  • motive [´məutiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.动机;主题 a.运动的   (初中英语单词)
  • scientific [,saiən´tifik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.科学(上)的   (初中英语单词)
  • literary [´litərəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.文学(上)的   (初中英语单词)
  • affect [ə´fekt] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.影响;感动;假装   (初中英语单词)
  • profession [prə´feʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.职业;声明;表白   (初中英语单词)
  • career [kə´riə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.经历;生涯;职业   (初中英语单词)
  • purely [´pjuəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.仅仅;简单地   (初中英语单词)
  • working [´wə:kiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.工人的;劳动的   (初中英语单词)
  • intention [in´tenʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.意图;打算;意义   (初中英语单词)
  • physician [fi´ziʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.(内科)医生   (初中英语单词)
  • ignorance [´ignərəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.无知,愚昧   (初中英语单词)
  • passion [´pæʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.激情;激怒;恋爱   (初中英语单词)
  • journal [´dʒə:nəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.日记;日报;杂志   (初中英语单词)
  • promptly [´prɔmptli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.敏捷地;即时地   (初中英语单词)
  • discussion [di´skʌʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.讨论;辩论   (初中英语单词)
  • existence [ig´zistəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.存在;生存;生活   (初中英语单词)
  • weekly [´wi:kli] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.&ad.每周一次(的)   (初中英语单词)
  • advocate [´ædvəkit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.辩护者   (初中英语单词)
  • ambition [æm´biʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.雄心,野心;企图   (初中英语单词)
  • independence [,indi´pendəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.独立,自主,自立   (初中英语单词)
  • recognition [,rekəg´niʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.认出;认识;承认   (初中英语单词)
  • dealer [´di:lə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.商人   (初中英语单词)
  • complain [kəm´plein] 移动到这儿单词发声  vi.抱怨,叫屈;控诉   (初中英语单词)
  • elsewhere [,elsweə] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.在别处;向别处   (初中英语单词)
  • childish [´tʃaildiʃ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.孩子的;幼稚的   (初中英语单词)
  • reference [´refərəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.参考;参照;出处   (初中英语单词)
  • extreme [ik´stri:m] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.尽头的 n.极端   (初中英语单词)
  • character [´kæriktə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.特性;性质;人物;字   (初中英语单词)
  • catholic [´kæθəlik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.天主教 n.天主教徒   (初中英语单词)
  • editorial [,edi´tɔ:riəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.编辑的 n.社论   (初中英语单词)
  • suspicion [sə´spiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.怀(猜)疑;嫌疑   (初中英语单词)
  • evident [´evidənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.明显的,明白的   (初中英语单词)
  • satisfactory [,sætis´fæktəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.令人满意的   (初中英语单词)
  • admission [əd´miʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.接纳;承认   (初中英语单词)
  • institution [,insti´tju:ʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.建立;制定;制度   (初中英语单词)
  • surrender [sə´rendə] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.&n.交出;引渡;放弃   (初中英语单词)
  • freely [´fri:li] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.自由地;慷慨地   (初中英语单词)
  • singer [´siŋə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.歌手,演唱者   (初中英语单词)
  • politics [´pɔlitiks] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.政治(学);政治活动   (初中英语单词)
  • valuable [´væljuəbəl, -jubəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有价值的,贵重的   (初中英语单词)
  • withdraw [wið´drɔ:] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.收回;撤销;撤退   (初中英语单词)
  • contribute [kən´tribju:t] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.贡献出;投稿;捐献   (初中英语单词)
  • proportion [prə´pɔ:ʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.比率 vt.使成比例   (初中英语单词)
  • ability [ə´biliti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.(办事)能力;才干   (初中英语单词)
  • function [´fʌŋkʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.机能;职责 vi.活动   (初中英语单词)
  • manager [´mænidʒə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.经理;管理人;干事   (初中英语单词)
  • aspect [´æspekt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.面貌;神色;方向   (初中英语单词)
  • midnight [´midnait] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.午夜;漆黑   (初中英语单词)
  • talent [´tælənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.天才;才干;天资   (初中英语单词)
  • nevertheless [,nevəðə´les] 移动到这儿单词发声  conj.&ad.然而;不过   (初中英语单词)
  • appreciate [ə´pri:ʃieit] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.评价;珍惜;感激   (初中英语单词)
  • eagerly [´i:gəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.渴望地,急切地   (初中英语单词)
  • debate [di´beit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&v.讨论,辩论   (初中英语单词)
  • curiosity [,kjuəri´ɔsiti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.好奇;奇事;珍品   (初中英语单词)
  • attractive [ə´træktiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有吸引力;诱人的   (初中英语单词)
  • arrangement [ə´reindʒmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.整理;排列;筹备   (初中英语单词)
  • effective [i´fektiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有效的;有力的   (初中英语单词)
  • intelligence [in´telidʒəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.智力;消息   (初中英语单词)
  • responsibility [ri,spɔnsə´biliti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.责任(心);职责;任务   (初中英语单词)
  • contents [´kɔ:ntents] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.容纳物;要旨   (初中英语单词)
  • briefly [´bri:fli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.简短地;简略地   (初中英语单词)
  • constant [´kɔnstənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.坚定的;坚贞的   (初中英语单词)
  • universal [,ju:ni´və:səl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.宇宙的;普遍的   (初中英语单词)
  • impression [im´preʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.印刷;印象;效果   (初中英语单词)
  • literature [´litərətʃə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.文学;文献;著作   (初中英语单词)
  • safely [´seifli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.安全地;平安地   (初中英语单词)
  • improvement [im´pru:vmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.改进,改善,进步   (初中英语单词)
  • telegraph [´teligrɑ:f] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&v.(打)电报;电告   (初中英语单词)
  • limited [´limitid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有限(制)的   (高中英语单词)
  • phenomenon [fi´nɔminən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.现象;奇迹;珍品   (高中英语单词)
  • legitimate [li´dʒitimit] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.合法的 vt.使合法   (高中英语单词)
  • competent [´kɔmpitənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.能干的,有资格的   (高中英语单词)
  • commonly [´kɔmənli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.一般地;通常   (高中英语单词)
  • motion [´məuʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.手势 vt.打手势   (高中英语单词)
  • conception [kən´sepʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.构思;概念;怀孕   (高中英语单词)
  • prejudice [´predʒədis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.偏见;不利 vt.损害   (高中英语单词)
  • define [di´fain] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.解释;说明;限定   (高中英语单词)
  • mutual [´mju:tʃuəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.相互的;共同的   (高中英语单词)
  • appeal [ə´pi:l] 移动到这儿单词发声  vi.&n.请求;呼吁;上诉   (高中英语单词)
  • community [kə´mju:niti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.团体;社区;公众   (高中英语单词)
  • refusal [ri´fju:zəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.拒绝;优先取舍权   (高中英语单词)
  • courtesy [´kə:tisi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.礼貌;殷勤;好意   (高中英语单词)
  • remedy [´remidi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.药品 vt.医治;减轻   (高中英语单词)
  • prompt [prɔmpt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.敏捷的 vt.促使   (高中英语单词)
  • dictate [dik´teit] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.口授;指示,命令   (高中英语单词)
  • charcoal [´tʃɑ:kəul] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.木炭;炭笔   (高中英语单词)
  • extension [ik´stenʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.延长;扩展;延期   (高中英语单词)
  • distrust [dis´trʌst] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&vt.不信任,怀疑   (高中英语单词)
  • circulation [,sə:kju´leiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.循环;流传;发行(量)   (高中英语单词)
  • strictly [´striktli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.严格地   (高中英语单词)
  • picnic [´piknik] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.郊游 vi.(去)野餐   (高中英语单词)
  • hesitation [,hezi´teiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.犹豫,踌躇   (高中英语单词)
  • campaign [kæm´pein] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.战役;行动 vi.从军   (高中英语单词)
  • charity [´tʃæriti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.施舍;慈悲;博爱   (高中英语单词)
  • convenience [kən´vi:niəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.方便;适当的机会   (高中英语单词)
  • discern [di´sə:n] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.辩认出   (高中英语单词)
  • discourse [´diskɔ:s] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.论文;演说;说教   (高中英语单词)
  • preacher [´pri:tʃə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.讲道者,传教士   (高中英语单词)
  • apprehension [,æpri´henʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.理解;忧虑;逮捕   (高中英语单词)
  • notwithstanding [,nɔtwiθ´stændiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  prep.&conj.虽然;还是   (高中英语单词)
  • communicate [kə´mju:nikeit] 移动到这儿单词发声  vi.通讯;传达;传播   (高中英语单词)
  • superficial [,su:pə´fiʃəl, ,sju:-] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.表面的,肤浅的   (英语四级单词)
  • outcome [´autkʌm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.结果;后果;成果   (英语四级单词)
  • exceptional [ik´sepʃənəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.异常的,特别的   (英语四级单词)
  • devoted [di´vəutid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.献身…的,忠实的   (英语四级单词)
  • friction [´frikʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.摩擦(力);冲突   (英语四级单词)
  • excellence [´eksələns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.优秀;杰出;优点   (英语四级单词)
  • patronage [´pætrənidʒ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.保护;赞助   (英语四级单词)
  • precarious [pri´keəriəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不安定的;危险的   (英语四级单词)
  • momentary [´məuməntəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.瞬息间的   (英语四级单词)
  • subscriber [səb´skraibə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.捐款人;预约者   (英语四级单词)
  • discretion [di´skreʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.谨慎;判断(力)   (英语四级单词)
  • policy [´pɔlisi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.政策;权谋;保险单   (英语四级单词)
  • slander [´slɑ:ndə] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.&n.诽谤(罪)   (英语四级单词)
  • totally [´təutəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.统统,完全   (英语四级单词)
  • unjust [ʌn´dʒʌst] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不公平(正)的   (英语四级单词)
  • considering [kən´sidəriŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  prep.就…而论   (英语四级单词)
  • dwindle [´dwindl] 移动到这儿单词发声  vi.缩小,减少   (英语四级单词)
  • integrity [in´tegriti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.完整;完善;正直   (英语四级单词)
  • charitable [´tʃæritəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.仁爱的;慈善的   (英语四级单词)
  • presentation [,prezən´teiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.介绍;赠送;提出   (英语四级单词)
  • congressman [´kɔŋgresmən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.国会议员   (英语四级单词)
  • pulpit [´pulpit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.讲坛   (英语四级单词)
  • traditional [trə´diʃənəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.传统的,习惯的   (英语四级单词)
  • reputation [repju´teiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.名誉;名声;信誉   (英语四级单词)
  • assertion [ə´sə:ʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.断言;主张;论述   (英语四级单词)
  • miscellaneous [,misə´leiniəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.混杂的;兴趣杂的   (英语四级单词)
  • speedily [´spi:dili] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.迅速地   (英语四级单词)
  • overtook [,əuvə´tuk] 移动到这儿单词发声  overtake的过去式   (英语四级单词)
  • philosophical [,filə´sɔfikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.哲学(上)的;冷静的   (英语六级单词)
  • willful [´wilfəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.任性的,固执的   (英语六级单词)
  • delusion [di´lu:ʒən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.欺骗;幻觉;迷惑   (英语六级单词)
  • incentive [in´sentiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.刺激;鼓励;动机   (英语六级单词)
  • colonization [,kɔlənai´zeiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.殖民;殖民地化   (英语六级单词)
  • credulity [kri´dju:liti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.轻信   (英语六级单词)
  • redress [ri´dres] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.&n.纠正;调整   (英语六级单词)
  • contracted [kən´træktid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.收缩了的;缩略的   (英语六级单词)
  • journalism [´dʒə:nəlizəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.新闻业;新闻工作   (英语六级单词)
  • rightful [´raitfəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.正义的;合法的   (英语六级单词)
  • druggist [´drʌgist] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.药商;药剂师   (英语六级单词)
  • suggestive [sə´dʒestiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.暗示的;启发的   (英语六级单词)
  • sagacity [sə´gæsəti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.精明;敏锐;有远见   (英语六级单词)
  • publicly [´pʌblikli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.公然;公众所有地   (英语六级单词)
  • susceptible [sə´septəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.敏感的;易受影响的   (英语六级单词)
  • transmission [trænz´miʃən, træns-] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.传送;播送;发射   (英语六级单词)

  • 上传人 欢乐鱼 分享于 2017-06-26 17:02:16
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