酷兔英语



Ceremonial of Hasjelti Dailjis and Mythical Sand Painting of the Navajo

Indians

by James Stevenson

Edition 1, (September 2006)

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION.

CONSTRUCTION OF THE MEDICINE LODGE.

FIRST DAY.

PERSONATORS OF THE GODS.

SECOND DAY.

DESCRIPTION OF THE SWEAT HOUSES.

SWEAT HOUSES AND MASKS.

PREPARATION OF THE SACRED REEDS (CIGARETTE) AND PRAYER STICKS.

THIRD DAY.

FIRST CEREMONY.

SECOND CEREMONY.

THIRD CEREMONY.

FOURTH CEREMONY.

FOURTH DAY.

FIRST CEREMONY.

SECOND CEREMONY.

THIRD CEREMONY.

FOURTH CEREMONY.

FIFTH CEREMONY.

SIXTH CEREMONY.

FIFTH DAY.

FIRST CEREMONY.

SECOND CEREMONY.

THIRD CEREMONY.

SIXTH DAY.

SEVENTH DAY.

EIGHTH DAY.

NINTH DAY.

FIRST CEREMONY.

SECOND CEREMONY.

SONG OF THE ETSETHLE.

PRAYER TO THE ETSETHLE.

CONCLUSION - THE DANCE.

MYTHS OF THE NAVAJO.

CREATION OF THE SUN.

HASJELTI AND HOSTJOGHON.

THE FLOATING LOGS.

NAIYENESGONY AND TOBAIDISCHINNI.

THE BROTHERS.

THE OLD MAN AND WOMAN OF THE FIRST WORLD.

ILLUSTRATIONS

FIG. 115. Exterior lodge.

FIG. 116. Interior lodge.

FIG. 117. Gaming ring.

FIG. 118. Sweat house.

PLATE CXII. A, Rainbow over eastern sweat house; B, Rainbow over western

sweat house

PLATE CXIII. Blanket rug and medicine tubes

PLATE CXIV. Blanket rug and medicine tubes

PLATE CXV. Masks: 1, Naiyenesyong; 2, 3, Tobaidischinne; 4, 5, Hasjelti;

6, Hostjoghon; 7, Hostjobokon; 8, Hostjoboard

PLATE CXVI. Blanket rug and medicine tubes

PLATE CXVII. 1, Pine boughs on sand bed; 2, Apache basket containing yucca

suds lined with corn pollen; 3, Basket of water surface covered with pine

needles

PLATE CXVIII. Blanket rug and medicine tubes and sticks

PLATE CXIX. Blanket rug and medicine tube

PLATE CXX. First sand painting

PLATE CXXI. Second sand painting

PLATE CXXII. Third sand painting

PLATE CXXIII. Fourth sand painting

INTRODUCTION.

During my visit to the Southwest, in the summer of 1885, it was my good

fortune to arrive at the Navajo Reservation a few days before the

commencement of a Navajo healing ceremonial. Learning of the preparation

for this, I decided to remain and observe the ceremony, which was to

continue nine days and nights. The occasion drew to the place some 1,200

Navajos. The scene of the assemblage was an extensiveplateau near the

margin of Keam's Canyon, Arizona.

A variety of singular and interesting occurrences attended this great

event--mythologic rites, gambling, horse and foot racing, general

merriment, and curing the sick, the latter being the prime cause of the

gathering. A man of distinction in the tribe was threatened with loss of

vision from inflammation of the eyes, having looked upon certain masks

with an irreligious heart. He was rich and had many wealthy relations,

hence the elaborateness of the ceremony of healing. A celebrated theurgist

was solicited to officiate, but much anxiety was felt when it was learned

that his wife was pregnant. A superstition prevails among the Navajo that

a man must not look upon a sand painting when his wife is in a state of

gestation, as it would result in the loss of the life of the child. This

medicine man, however, came, feeling that he possessed ample power within

himself to avert such calamity by administering to the child immediately

after its birth a mixture in water of all the sands used in the painting.

As I have given but little time to the study of Navajo mythology, I can

but briefly mention such events as I witnessed, and record the myths only

so far as I was able to collect them hastily. I will first describe the

ceremony of Yebitchai and give then the myths (some complete and others

incomplete) explanatory of the gods and genii figuring in the Hasjelti

Dailjis (dance of Hasjelti) and in the nine days' ceremonial, and then

others independent of these. The ceremony is familiarly called among the

tribe, "Yebitchai," the word meaning the giant's uncle. The name was

originally given to the ceremonial to awe the children who, on the eighth

day of the ceremony, are initiated into some of its mysteries and then for

the first time are informed that the characters appearing in the ceremony

are not real gods, but only their representatives. There is good reason

for believing that their ideas in regard to the sand paintings were

obtained from the Pueblo tribes, who in the past had elaborated sand

paintings and whose work at present in connection with most of their

medicine ceremonies is of no mean order. The Mission Indians of southern

California also regard sand paintings as among the important features in

their medicine practices. While the figures of the mythical beings

represented by the Navajo are no doubt of their own conception, yet I

discovered that all their medicine tubes and offerings were similar to

those in use by the Zuni. Their presence among the Navajo can be readily

explained by the well known fact that it was the custom among Indians of

different tribes to barter and exchange medicine songs, ceremonies, and

the paraphernalia accompanying them. The Zuni and Tusayan claim that the

Navajo obtained the secrets of the Pueblo medicine by intruding upon their

ceremonials or capturing a pueblo, and that they appropriated whatever

suited their fancy.

[Illustration: Figure 115]

FIG. 115. Exterior lodge.

My explanation of the ceremonial described is by authority of the priest

doctor who managed the whole affair and who remained with me five days

after the ceremonial for this special purpose. Much persuasion was

required to induce him to stay, though he was most anxious that we should

make no mistake. He said:

My wife may suffer and I should be near her; a father's eyes

should be the first to look upon his child; it is like sunshine in

the father's heart; the father also watches his little one to see

the first signs of understanding, and observes the first steps of

his child, that too is a bright light in the father's heart, but

when the little one falls, it strikes the father's heart hard.

The features of this ceremonial which most surprise the white spectator

are its great elaborateness, the number of its participants and its

prolongation through many days for the purpose of restoring health to a

single member of the tribe.

CONSTRUCTION OF THE MEDICINE LODGE.

A rectangular parallelogram was marked off on the ground, and at each

corner was firmly planted a forked post extending 10 feet above the

surface, and on these were laid 4 horizontal beams, against which rested

poles thickly set at an angle of about 20 deg., while other poles were placed

horizontally across the beams forming a support for the covering. The

poles around the sides were planted more in an oval than a circle and

formed an interior space of about 35 by 30 feet in diameter. On the east

side of the lodge was an entrance supported by stakes and closed with a

buffalo robe, and the whole structure was then thickly covered first with

boughs, then with sand, giving it the appearance of a small earth mound.

[Illustration: Figure 116]

FIG. 116. Interior lodge.

FIRST DAY.

PERSONATORS OF THE GODS.

The theurgist or song-priest arrived at noon on the 12th of October, 1885.

Almost immediately after his arrival we boldly entered the medicine lodge,

accompanied by our interpreter, Navajo John, and pleaded our cause. The

stipulation of the medicine man was that we should make no mistakes and

thereby offend the gods, and to avoid mistakes we must hear all of his

songs and see all of his medicines, and he at once ordered some youths to

prepare a place for our tent near the lodge. During the afternoon of the

12th those who were to take part in the ceremonial received orders and

instructions from the song-priest. One man went to collect twigs with

which to make twelve rings, each 6 inches in diameter. These rings

represented gaming rings, which are not only used by the Navajo, but are

thought highly of by the genii of the rocks. (See Fig. 117.) Another man

gathered willows with which to make the emblem of the concentration of the

four winds. The square was made by dressed willows crossed and left

projecting at the corners each one inch beyond the next. The corners were

tied together with white cotton cord, and each corner was ornamented with

the under tail feather of the eagle. These articles were laid in a niche

behind the theurgist, whose permanent seat was on the west side of the

lodge facing east. The night ceremony commenced shortly after dark. All

those who were to participate were immediate friends and relatives of the

invalid excepting the theurgist or song-priest, he being the only one who

received direct compensation for his professional services. The cost of

such a ceremony is no inconsiderable item. Not only the exorbitant fee of

the theurgist must be paid, but the entire assemblage must be fed during

the nine days' ceremonial at the expense of the invalid, assisted by his

near relatives.

[Illustration: Figure 117]

FIG. 117. Gaming ring.

A bright fire burned in the lodge, and shortly after dark the invalid

appeared and sat upon a blanket, which was placed in front of the

song-priest. Previously, however, three men had prepared themselves to

personate the gods--Hasjelti, Hostjoghon, and Hostjobokon--and one to

personate the goddess, Hostjoboard. They left the lodge, carrying their

masks in their hands, went a short distance away and put on their masks.

Then Hasjelti and Hostjoghon returned to the lodge, and Hasjelti, amid

hoots, "hu-hoo-hu-huh!" placed the square which he carried over the

invalid's head, and Hostjoghon shook two eagle wands, one in each hand, on

each side of the invalid's head and body, then over his head, meanwhile

hooting in his peculiar way, "hu-u-u-u-uh!" He then followed Hasjelti out

of the lodge. The men representing Hostjobokon and Hostjoboard came in

alternately. Hostjobokon took one of the rings which had been made during

the afternoon, and now lay upon the blanket to the right of the invalid,

and placed it against the soles of the feet of the invalid, who was

sitting with knees drawn up, and then against his knees, palms, breast,

each scapula, and top of his head; then over his mouth. While touching the

different parts of the body the ring was held with both hands, but when

placed to the mouth of the invalid it was taken in the left hand. The ring

was made of a reed, the ends of which were secured by a long string

wrapped over the ring like a slipnoose. When the ring was placed over the

mouth of the invalid the string was pulled and the ring dropped and rolled

out of the lodge, the long tail of white cotton yarn, with eagle plume

attached to the end, extending far behind. Hoslgoboard repeated this

ceremony with a second ring, and so did Hostjobokon and Hostjoboard

alternately, until the twelve rings were disposed of. Three of the rings

were afterward taken to the east, three to the south, three to the west,

and three to the north, and deposited at the base of pinon trees. The

rings were placed over the invalid's mouth to give him strength, cause him

to talk with one tongue, and to have a good mind and heart. The other

portions of the body were touched with them for physical benefit. When the

rings had all been rolled out of the lodge Hasjelti entered, followed by

Hostjoghon. He passed the square (the concentrated winds) four times over

the head of the invalid during his hoots. Hostjoghon then waved his turkey

wands about the head and body of the invalid, and the first day's ceremony

was at an end.

SECOND DAY.

DESCRIPTION OF THE SWEAT HOUSES.

The construction of the first sweat house, or tachi, was begun at dawn.

Four of these houses were built on four consecutive mornings, each one

located about 400 feet distant from the great central medicine lodge,

toward the four cardinal points, and all facing to the east. The first one

built was east of the lodge. A description of the construction of this

particular one will answer for all, but the ceremonies differ in detail.

Four upright poles, forked at the upper ends, were placed at the four

cardinal points within an area designated as the base of the house, the

forked ends resting against each other, a circularexcavation some 6 feet

in diameter and 1 foot in depth having first been made. Between the

uprights smaller poles were laid; on the poles pinon boughs, sage and

_Bigelovia Douglasii_ (a kind of sage brush) were placed as a thatch; all

being laid sufficientlycompact to prevent the sand placed over the top

from sifting through. The doorway, on the east side of the house, was

about 2-1/2 feet high and 20 inches wide. Highly polished sticks (the same

as those employed in blanket weaving) were used to render the sand

covering of the structure smooth. The sweat houses to the east and west

had the rainbow painted over them. Those to the north and south were

devoid of such decoration, because the song priest seldom completes his

medicine in one ceremonial; and he chose to omit the songs which would be

required if the bow ornamented the north and south sweat houses. Under the

direction of the priest of the sweat house, who received instruction from

the song priest, three young men painted the rainbow, one the head and

body, another the skirt and legs, while the third painted the bow. The

head of this goddess was to the north, the bow extending over the

structure. The colors used were made from ground pigments sprinkled on

with the thumb and forefinger. Whenever a pinch of the dry paint was taken

from the pieces of bark which served as paint cups, the artist breathed

upon the hand before sprinkling the paint. This, however, had no religious

significance, but was merely to clear the finger and thumb of any

superfluous sand. The colors used in decoration were yellow, red, and

white from sandstones, black from charcoal, and a grayish blue, formed of

white sand and charcoal, with a very small quantity of yellow and red

sands. (See Fig. 118.) The decorators were carefully watched by the song

priest.

[Illustration: Figure 118]


生词表:
  • painting [´peintiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.绘画;(油)画;着色   (初中英语单词)
  • sacred [´seikrid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.神圣的;庄严的   (初中英语单词)
  • interior [in´tiəriə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&a.内部地(的)   (初中英语单词)
  • learning [´lə:niŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.学习;学问;知识   (初中英语单词)
  • ceremony [´seriməni] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.典礼;礼仪;客气   (初中英语单词)
  • extensive [ik´stensiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.广阔的;大量的   (初中英语单词)
  • variety [və´raiəti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.变化;多样(性);种类   (初中英语单词)
  • distinction [di´stiŋkʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.差别;特征;卓越   (初中英语单词)
  • wealthy [´welθi] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.富有的;丰富的   (初中英语单词)
  • celebrated [´selibreitid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.著名的   (初中英语单词)
  • anxiety [æŋ´zaiəti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.挂念;渴望;焦虑的事   (初中英语单词)
  • mixture [´mikstʃə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.混合;混合比;混合物   (初中英语单词)
  • briefly [´bri:fli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.简短地;简略地   (初中英语单词)
  • hastily [´heistili] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.急速地;草率地   (初中英语单词)
  • connection [kə´nekʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.联系;关系;联运   (初中英语单词)
  • mission [´miʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.代表团;使馆vt.派遣   (初中英语单词)
  • explanation [,eksplə´neiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.解释;说明;辩解   (初中英语单词)
  • persuasion [pə´sweiʒən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.说服(力);劝说;见解   (初中英语单词)
  • anxious [´æŋkʃəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.担忧的;渴望的   (初中英语单词)
  • sunshine [´sʌnʃain] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.日光,阳光   (初中英语单词)
  • firmly [´fə:mli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.坚固地,稳定地   (初中英语单词)
  • circle [´sə:kəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.圆圈 v.环绕;盘旋   (初中英语单词)
  • structure [´strʌktʃə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.结构,构造;组织   (初中英语单词)
  • arrival [ə´raivəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.到达;到达的人(物)   (初中英语单词)
  • interpreter [in´tə:pritə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.译员;解释者;翻译器   (初中英语单词)
  • offend [ə´fend] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.犯错误;违犯;犯罪   (初中英语单词)
  • concentration [,kɔnsən´treiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.集中,专心   (初中英语单词)
  • feather [´feðə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.羽毛   (初中英语单词)
  • permanent [´pə:mənənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.永久的;不变的   (初中英语单词)
  • shortly [´ʃɔ:tli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.立刻,马上;不久   (初中英语单词)
  • professional [prə´feʃənəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.职业的 n.自由职业   (初中英语单词)
  • goddess [´gɔdis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.女神   (初中英语单词)
  • peculiar [pi´kju:liə] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.特有的;奇异的   (初中英语单词)
  • physical [´fizikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.物质的;有形的   (初中英语单词)
  • construction [kən´strʌkʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.建设;修建;结构   (初中英语单词)
  • description [di´skripʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.描写   (初中英语单词)
  • differ [´difə] 移动到这儿单词发声  vi.不同;有差别   (初中英语单词)
  • circular [´sə:kjulə] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.圆形的 n.通知   (初中英语单词)
  • sufficiently [sə´fiʃəntli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.充分地,足够地   (初中英语单词)
  • doorway [´dɔ:wei] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.门口   (初中英语单词)
  • decoration [,dekə´reiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.装饰(品);装璜   (初中英语单词)
  • priest [pri:st] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.教士;牧师;神父   (初中英语单词)
  • instruction [in´strʌkʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.教育;训练;指导   (初中英语单词)
  • whenever [wen´evə] 移动到这儿单词发声  conj.&ad.无论何时   (初中英语单词)
  • rainbow [´reinbəu] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.彩虹   (高中英语单词)
  • southwest [,sauθ´west] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&a.西南(方)(的)   (高中英语单词)
  • reservation [,rezə´veiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.保留;储备;预定   (高中英语单词)
  • decided [di´saidid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.明显的;决定的   (高中英语单词)
  • plateau [´plætəu] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.高原;平稳;托盘   (高中英语单词)
  • singular [´siŋgjulə] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.单一的;非凡的   (高中英语单词)
  • superstition [,su:pə´stiʃən, ,sju:-] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.迷信(行为)   (高中英语单词)
  • conception [kən´sepʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.构思;概念;怀孕   (高中英语单词)
  • thickly [´θikli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.厚厚地;密密地   (高中英语单词)
  • diameter [dai´æmitə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.直径   (高中英语单词)
  • boldly [´bəuldli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.大胆地;醒目地   (高中英语单词)
  • compensation [,kɔmpen´seiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.补偿,赔偿   (高中英语单词)
  • previously [´pri:viəsli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.预先;以前   (高中英语单词)
  • repeated [ri´pi:tid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.反复的;重复的   (高中英语单词)
  • cardinal [´kɑ:dinəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.主要的 n.深红色   (高中英语单词)
  • upright [´ʌprait] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.直立的 ad.直立地   (高中英语单词)
  • compact [´kɔmpækt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.契约 a.挤满的   (高中英语单词)
  • charcoal [´tʃɑ:kəul] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.木炭;炭笔   (高中英语单词)
  • exterior [ik´stiəriə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&a.外表(的)   (英语四级单词)
  • canyon [´kænjən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.峡谷   (英语四级单词)
  • calamity [kə´læmiti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.灾害,大灾难   (英语四级单词)
  • horizontal [,hɔri´zɔntl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.水平的,横的   (英语四级单词)
  • participate [pɑ:´tisipeit] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.参与;分享;带有   (英语四级单词)
  • invalid [in´vælid] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.病人 a.无效的   (英语四级单词)
  • touching [´tʌtʃiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.动人的 prep.提到   (英语四级单词)
  • thatch [θætʃ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.茅草屋顶   (英语四级单词)
  • ceremonial [,seri´məuniəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.礼仪的,仪式的   (英语六级单词)
  • pollen [´pɔlən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.花粉 v.授粉给   (英语六级单词)
  • pregnant [´pregnənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.怀孕的;含蓄的   (英语六级单词)
  • barter [´bɑ:tə] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.交换(货物) n.互换品   (英语六级单词)
  • seethe [si:ð] 移动到这儿单词发声  vi.沸腾;骚动   (英语六级单词)
  • rectangular [rek´tæŋgjulə] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.矩形的;成直角的   (英语六级单词)
  • emblem [´embləm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.象征;标志;徽章   (英语六级单词)
  • consecutive [kən´sekjutiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.连续的;连贯的   (英语六级单词)
  • excavation [,ekskə´veiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.挖掘,洞,穴   (英语六级单词)
  • forefinger [´fɔ:,fiŋgə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.食指   (英语六级单词)

  • 上传人 欢乐鱼 分享于 2017-06-26 17:37:12
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