酷兔英语



MARK TWAIN A BIOGRAPHY

THE PERSONAL AND LITERARY LIFE OF SAMUEL LANGHORNE CLEMENS

BY ALBERT BIGELOW PAINE

VOLUME I, Part 1: 1835-1866

TO

CLARA CLEMENS GABRILOWITSCH WHO STEADILY UPHELD THE

AUTHOR'S PURPOSE TO WRITE HISTORY RATHER THAN EULOGY AS

THE STORY OF HER FATHER'S LIFE

AN ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Dear William Dean Howells, Joseph Hopkins Twichell, Joseph T. Goodman,

and other old friends of Mark Twain:

I cannot let these volumes go to press without some grateful word to you

who have helped me during the six years and more that have gone to their

making.

First, I want to confess how I have envied you your association with Mark

Twain in those days when you and he "went gipsying, a long time ago."

Next, I want to express my wonder at your willingness to give me so

unstintedly from your precious letters and memories, when it is in the

nature of man to hoard such treasures, for himself and for those who

follow him. And, lastly, I want to tell you that I do not envy you so

much, any more, for in these chapters, one after another, through your

grace, I have gone gipsying with you all. Neither do I wonder now, for I

have come to know that out of your love for him grew that greater

unselfishness (or divine selfishness, as he himself might have termed

it), and that nothing short of the fullest you could do for his memory

would have contented your hearts.

My gratitude is measureless; and it is world-wide, for there is no land

so distant that it does not contain some one who has eagerly contributed

to the story. Only, I seem so poorly able to put my thanks into words.

Albert Bigelow Paine.

PREFATORY NOTE

Certain happenings as recorded in this work will be found to differ

materially from the same incidents and episodes as set down in the

writings of Mr. Clemens himself. Mark Twain's spirit was built of the

very fabric of truth, so far as moral intent was concerned, but in his

earlier autobiographical writings--and most of his earlier writings were

autobiographical--he made no real pretense to accuracy of time, place, or

circumstance--seeking, as he said, "only to tell a good story"--while in

later years an ever-vivid imagination and a capricious memory made

history difficult, even when, as in his so-called "Autobiography," his

effort was in the direction of fact.

"When I was younger I could remember anything, whether it happened or

not," he once said, quaintly, "but I am getting old, and soon I shall

remember only the latter."

The reader may be assured, where discrepancies occur, that the writer of

this memoir has obtained his data from direct and positive sources:

letters, diaries, account-books, or other immediate memoranda; also from

the concurring testimony of eye-witnesses, supported by a unity of

circumstance and conditions, and not from hearsay or vagrant printed

items.

MARK TWAIN

A BIOGRAPHY

I

ANCESTORS

On page 492 of the old volume of Suetonius, which Mark Twain read until

his very last day, there is a reference to one Flavius Clemens, a man of

wide repute "for his want of energy," and in a marginal note he has

written:

"I guess this is where our line starts."

It was like him to write that. It spoke in his whimsical fashion the

attitude of humility, the ready acknowledgment of shortcoming, which was

his chief characteristic and made him lovable--in his personality and in

his work.

Historically, we need not accept this identity of the Clemens ancestry.

The name itself has a kindly meaning, and was not an uncommon one in

Rome. There was an early pope by that name, and it appears now and again

in the annals of the Middle Ages. More lately there was a Gregory

Clemens, an English landowner who became a member of Parliament under

Cromwell and signed the death-warrant of Charles I. Afterward he was

tried as a regicide, his estates were confiscated, and his head was

exposed on a pole on the top of Westminster Hall.

Tradition says that the family of Gregory Clemens did not remain in

England, but emigrated to Virginia (or New Jersey), and from them, in

direct line, descended the Virginia Clemenses, including John Marshall

Clemens, the father of Mark Twain. Perhaps the line could be traced, and

its various steps identified, but, after all, an ancestor more or less

need not matter when it is the story of a descendant that is to be

written.

Of Mark Twain's immediate forebears, however, there is something to be

said. His paternal grandfather, whose name also was Samuel, was a man of

culture and literary taste. In 1797 he married a Virginia girl, Pamela

Goggin; and of their five children John Marshall Clemens, born August 11,

1798, was the eldest--becoming male head of the family at the age of

seven, when his father was accidentally killed at a house-raising. The

family was not a poor one, but the boy grew up with a taste for work. As

a youth he became a clerk in an iron manufactory, at Lynchburg, and

doubtless studied at night. At all events, he acquired an education, but

injured his health in the mean time, and somewhat later, with his mother

and the younger children, removed to Adair County, Kentucky, where the

widow presently married a sweetheart of her girlhood, one Simon Hancock,

a good man. In due course, John Clemens was sent to Columbia, the

countyseat, to study law. When the living heirs became of age he

administered his father's estate, receiving as his own share three negro

slaves; also a mahogany sideboard, which remains among the Clemens

effects to this day.

This was in 1821. John Clemens was now a young man of twenty-three,

never very robust, but with a good profession, plenty of resolution, and

a heart full of hope and dreams. Sober, industrious, and unswervingly

upright, it seemed certain that he must make his mark. That he was

likely to be somewhat too optimistic, even visionary, was not then

regarded as a misfortune.

It was two years later that he met Jane Lampton; whose mother was a Casey

--a Montgomery-Casey whose father was of the Lamptons (Lambtons) of

Durham, England, and who on her own account was reputed to be the

handsomest girl and the wittiest, as well as the best dancer, in all

Kentucky. The Montgomeries and the Caseys of Kentucky had been Indian

fighters in the Daniel Boone period, and grandmother Casey, who had been

Jane Montgomery, had worn moccasins in her girlhood, and once saved her

life by jumping a fence and out-running a redskin pursuer. The

Montgomery and Casey annals were full of blood-curdling adventures, and

there is to-day a Casey County next to Adair, with a Montgomery County

somewhat farther east. As for the Lamptons, there is an earldom in the

English family, and there were claimants even then in the American

branch. All these things were worth while in Kentucky, but it was rare

Jane Lampton herself--gay, buoyant, celebrated for her beauty and her

grace; able to dance all night, and all day too, for that matter--that

won the heart of John Marshall Clemens, swept him off his feet almost at

the moment of their meeting. Many of the characteristics that made Mark

Twain famous were inherited from his mother. His sense of humor, his

prompt, quaintly spoken philosophy, these were distinctly her

contribution to his fame. Speaking of her in a later day, he once said:

"She had a sort of ability which is rare in man and hardly existent in

woman--the ability to say a humorous thing with the perfect air of not

knowing it to be humorous."

She bequeathed him this, without doubt; also her delicate complexion; her

wonderful wealth of hair; her small, shapely hands and feet, and the

pleasant drawling speech which gave her wit, and his, a serene and

perfect setting.

It was a one-sided love affair, the brief courtship of Jane Lampton and

John Marshall Clemens. All her life, Jane Clemens honored her husband,

and while he lived served him loyally; but the choice of her heart had

been a young physician of Lexington with whom she had quarreled, and her

prompt engagement with John Clemens was a matter of temper rather than

tenderness. She stipulated that the wedding take place at once, and on

May 6, 1823, they were married. She was then twenty; her husband

twenty-five. More than sixty years later, when John Clemens had long

been dead, she took a railway journey to a city where there was an Old

Settlers' Convention, because among the names of those attending she had

noticed the name of the lover of her youth. She meant to humble herself

to him and ask forgiveness after all the years. She arrived too late;

the convention was over, and he was gone. Mark Twain once spoke of this,

and added:

"It is as pathetic a romance as any that has crossed the field of my

personal experience in a long lifetime."

II

THE FORTUNES OF JOHN AND JANE CLEMENS

With all his ability and industry, and with the-best of intentions, John

Clemens would seem to have had an unerring faculty for making business

mistakes. It was his optimistic outlook, no doubt--his absolute

confidence in the prosperity that lay just ahead--which led him from one

unfortunate locality or enterprise to another, as long as he lived. About

a year after his marriage he settled with his young wife in Gainsborough,

Tennessee, a mountain town on the Cumberland River, and here, in 1825,

their first child, a boy, was born. They named him Orion--after the

constellation, perhaps--though they changed the accent to the first

syllable, calling it Orion. Gainsborough was a small place with few

enough law cases; but it could hardly have been as small, or furnished as

few cases; as the next one selected, which was Jamestown, Fentress

County, still farther toward the Eastward Mountains. Yet Jamestown had

the advantage of being brand new, and in the eye of his fancy John

Clemens doubtless saw it the future metropolis of east Tennessee, with

himself its foremost jurist and citizen. He took an immediate and active

interest in the development of the place, established the county-seat

there, built the first Court House, and was promptly elected as circuit

clerk of the court.

It was then that he decided to lay the foundation of a fortune for

himself and his children by acquiring Fentress County land. Grants could

be obtained in those days at the expense of less than a cent an acre, and

John Clemens believed that the years lay not far distant when the land

would increase in value ten thousand, twenty, perhaps even a hundred

thousandfold. There was no wrong estimate in that. Land covered with

the finest primeval timber, and filled with precious minerals, could

hardly fail to become worth millions, even though his entire purchase of

75,000 acres probably did not cost him more than $500. The great tract

lay about twenty nines to the southward of Jamestown. Standing in the

door of the Court House he had built, looking out over the "Knob" of the

Cumberland Mountains toward his vast possessions, he said:

"Whatever befalls me now, my heirs are secure. I may not live to see

these acres turn into silver and gold, but my children will."

Such was the creation of that mirage of wealth, the "Tennessee land,"

which all his days and for long afterward would lie just ahead--a golden

vision, its name the single watchword of the family fortunes--the dream

fading with years, only materializing at last as a theme in a story of

phantom riches, The Gilded Age.

Yet for once John Clemens saw clearly, and if his dream did not come true

he was in no wise to blame. The land is priceless now, and a corporation

of the Clemens heirs is to-day contesting the title of a thin fragment of

it--about one thousand acres--overlooked in some survey.

Believing the future provided for, Clemens turned his attention to

present needs. He built himself a house, unusual in its style and

elegance. It had two windows in each room, and its walls were covered

with plastering, something which no one in Jamestown had ever seen

before. He was regarded as an aristocrat. He wore a swallow-tail coat

of fine blue jeans, instead of the coarse brown native-made cloth. The

blue-jeans coat was ornamented with brass buttons and cost one dollar and

twenty-five cents a yard, a high price for that locality and time. His

wife wore a calico dress for company, while the neighbor wives wore

homespun linsey-woolsey. The new house was referred to as the Crystal

Palace. When John and Jane Clemens attended balls--there were continuous

balls during the holidays--they were considered the most graceful

dancers.

Jamestown did not become the metropolis he had dreamed. It attained

almost immediately to a growth of twenty-five houses--mainly log houses

--and stopped there. The country, too, was sparsely settled; law

practice was slender and unprofitable, the circuit-riding from court to

court was very bad for one of his physique. John Clemens saw his reserve

of health and funds dwindling, and decided to embark in merchandise. He

built himself a store and put in a small country stock of goods. These

he exchanged for ginseng, chestnuts, lampblack, turpentine, rosin, and

other produce of the country, which he took to Louisville every spring

and fall in six-horse wagons. In the mean time he would seem to have

sold one or more of his slaves, doubtless to provide capital. There was

a second baby now--a little girl, Pamela,--born in September, 1827.

Three years later, May 1830, another little girl, Margaret, came. By

this time the store and home were in one building, the store occupying

one room, the household requiring two--clearly the family fortunes were

declining.

About a year after little Margaret was born, John Clemens gave up

Jamestown and moved his family and stock of goods to a point nine miles

distant, known as the Three Forks of Wolf. The Tennessee land was safe,

of course, and would be worth millions some day, but in the mean time the

struggle for daily substance was becoming hard.

He could not have remained at the Three Forks long, for in 1832 we find

him at still another place, on the right bank of Wolf River, where a

post-office called Pall Mall was established, with John Clemens as

postmaster, usually addressed as "Squire" or "Judge." A store was run in

connection with the postoffice. At Pall Mall, in June, 1832, another

boy, Benjamin, was born.

The family at this time occupied a log house built by John Clemens

himself, the store being kept in another log house on the opposite bank

of the river. He no longer practised law. In The Gilded Age we have

Mark Twain's picture of Squire Hawkins and Obedstown, written from

descriptions supplied in later years by his mother and his brother Orion;

and, while not exact in detail, it is not regarded as an exaggerated

presentation of east Tennessee conditions at that time. The chapter is

too long and too depressing to be set down here. The reader may look it

up for himself, if he chooses. If he does he will not wonder that Jane

Clemens's handsome features had become somewhat sharper, and her manner a

shade graver, with the years and burdens of marriage, or that John

Clemens at thirty-six-out of health, out of tune with his environment

--was rapidly getting out of heart. After all the bright promise of the

beginning, things had somehow gone wrong, and hope seemed dwindling away.

A tall man, he had become thin and unusually pale; he looked older than

his years. Every spring he was prostrated with what was called

"sunpain," an acute form of headache, nerve-racking and destroying to all

persistent effort. Yet he did not retreat from his moral and

intellectual standards, or lose the respect of that shiftless community.

He was never intimidated by the rougher element, and his eyes were of a

kind that would disconcert nine men out of ten. Gray and deep-set under


生词表:
  • literary [´litərəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.文学(上)的   (初中英语单词)
  • steadily [´stedili] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.坚定地;不断地   (初中英语单词)
  • grateful [´greitful] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.感谢的;令人愉快的   (初中英语单词)
  • confess [kən´fes] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.供认;坦白;承认   (初中英语单词)
  • divine [di´vain] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.神圣的 v.预言   (初中英语单词)
  • gratitude [´grætitju:d] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.感激,感谢   (初中英语单词)
  • contain [kən´tein] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.包含;容纳;抑制   (初中英语单词)
  • eagerly [´i:gəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.渴望地,急切地   (初中英语单词)
  • fabric [´fæbrik] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.织物;结构;组织   (初中英语单词)
  • intent [in´tent] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.专心致志的 n.意图   (初中英语单词)
  • imagination [i,mædʒi´neiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.想象(力)   (初中英语单词)
  • writer [´raitə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.作者;作家   (初中英语单词)
  • volume [´vɔlju:m, ´vɑljəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.卷;书籍;体积;容量   (初中英语单词)
  • reference [´refərəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.参考;参照;出处   (初中英语单词)
  • personality [,pə:sə´næliti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.人;个性;人品;人物   (初中英语单词)
  • lately [´leitli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.近来,不久前   (初中英语单词)
  • parliament [´pɑ:ləmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.议(国)会   (初中英语单词)
  • virginia [və´dʒinjə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.佛吉尼亚(州)   (初中英语单词)
  • ancestor [´ænsəstə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.祖宗,祖先   (初中英语单词)
  • grandfather [´grænd,fɑ:ðə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.(外)祖父;祖先   (初中英语单词)
  • presently [´prezəntli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.不久;目前   (初中英语单词)
  • columbia [kə´lʌmbiə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.哥伦比亚   (初中英语单词)
  • estate [i´steit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.财产;庄园;等级   (初中英语单词)
  • profession [prə´feʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.职业;声明;表白   (初中英语单词)
  • resolution [,rezə´lu:ʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.决心;坚决;果断   (初中英语单词)
  • account [ə´kaunt] 移动到这儿单词发声  vi.说明 vt.认为 n.帐目   (初中英语单词)
  • grandmother [´græn,mʌðə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.(外)祖母   (初中英语单词)
  • celebrated [´selibreitid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.著名的   (初中英语单词)
  • spoken [´spəukən] 移动到这儿单词发声  speak的过去分词   (初中英语单词)
  • philosophy [fi´lɔsəfi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.哲学;人生观   (初中英语单词)
  • distinctly [di´stiŋktli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.清楚地,明晰地   (初中英语单词)
  • ability [ə´biliti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.(办事)能力;才干   (初中英语单词)
  • delicate [´delikət] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.精美的;微妙的   (初中英语单词)
  • wealth [welθ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.财富,财产   (初中英语单词)
  • physician [fi´ziʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.(内科)医生   (初中英语单词)
  • engagement [in´geidʒmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.婚约;雇用;受聘   (初中英语单词)
  • temper [´tempə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.韧度 v.锻炼;调和   (初中英语单词)
  • wedding [´wediŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.婚礼,结婚   (初中英语单词)
  • humble [´hʌmbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.谦卑的 vt.贬抑   (初中英语单词)
  • romance [rəu´mæns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.中世纪骑士小说   (初中英语单词)
  • faculty [´fækəlti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.才干;天赋;院,系   (初中英语单词)
  • prosperity [prɔ´speriti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.繁荣;成功;幸运   (初中英语单词)
  • enterprise [´entəpraiz] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.企业;雄心;胆识   (初中英语单词)
  • accent [´æksənt, æk´sent] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.重音;口音 vt.重读   (初中英语单词)
  • advantage [əd´vɑ:ntidʒ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.优势;利益   (初中英语单词)
  • doubtless [´dautlis] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.无疑地;大概,多半   (初中英语单词)
  • promptly [´prɔmptli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.敏捷地;即时地   (初中英语单词)
  • foundation [faun´deiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.建立;基金;地基   (初中英语单词)
  • estimate [´estimət, ´estimeit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.估计;评价 vt.估价   (初中英语单词)
  • timber [´timbə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.木材;木料;横梁   (初中英语单词)
  • standing [´stændiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.持续 a.直立的   (初中英语单词)
  • creation [kri´eiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.创作;作品;创造   (初中英语单词)
  • riches [´ritʃiz] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.房地产;丰富   (初中英语单词)
  • fragment [´frægmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.碎片;破片;断片   (初中英语单词)
  • unusual [ʌn´ju:ʒuəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不平常的;异常的   (初中英语单词)
  • coarse [kɔ:s] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.粗(糙)的;粗鲁的   (初中英语单词)
  • slender [´slendə] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.细长的;微薄的   (初中英语单词)
  • squire [skwaiə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.护卫,侍从;乡绅   (初中英语单词)
  • retreat [ri´tri:t] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.&n.退却;撤退;放弃   (初中英语单词)
  • contented [kən´tentid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.满足的;心满意足的   (高中英语单词)
  • concerned [kən´sə:nd] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有关的;担心的   (高中英语单词)
  • accuracy [´ækjurəsi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.准确(性);精密度   (高中英语单词)
  • so-called [´sou ´kɔ:ld] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.所谓的,号称的   (高中英语单词)
  • positive [´pɔzətiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.确定的   (高中英语单词)
  • testimony [´testiməni] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.证明;证据;表明   (高中英语单词)
  • characteristic [,kæriktə´ristik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.特有的 n.特性   (高中英语单词)
  • descendant [di´sendənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.子孙,后裔   (高中英语单词)
  • studied [´stʌdid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.故意的;有计划的   (高中英语单词)
  • kentucky [kən´tʌki] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.肯塔基   (高中英语单词)
  • sweetheart [´swi:thɑ:t] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.爱人;情人   (高中英语单词)
  • industrious [in´dʌstriəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.勤勉的,刻苦的   (高中英语单词)
  • dancer [´dɑ:nsə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.舞蹈者,舞蹈演员   (高中英语单词)
  • complexion [kəm´plekʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.肤色;情况;局面   (高中英语单词)
  • serene [si´ri:n] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&a.清澈的;宁静的   (高中英语单词)
  • forgiveness [fə´givnis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.原谅,饶恕;宽仁   (高中英语单词)
  • locality [ləu´kæliti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.位置,地区,发生地   (高中英语单词)
  • foremost [´fɔ:məust] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.最重要的;最先的   (高中英语单词)
  • decided [di´saidid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.明显的;决定的   (高中英语单词)
  • southward [´sauθwəd] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.&n.向南方向(的)   (高中英语单词)
  • merchandise [´mə:tʃəndaiz] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.商品 v.经商   (高中英语单词)
  • headache [´hedeik] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.头痛;使人头痛的事   (高中英语单词)
  • lastly [´lɑ:stli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.最后,终于   (英语四级单词)
  • poorly [´puəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不舒服的 ad.贫穷地   (英语四级单词)
  • marginal [´mɑ:dʒinəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有旁注的;边缘的   (英语四级单词)
  • humility [hju:´militi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.谦逊,谦让   (英语四级单词)
  • uncommon [ʌn´kɔmən] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.非常的,非凡的,罕见的   (英语四级单词)
  • indirect [,indi´rekt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.间接的;迂回的   (英语四级单词)
  • mahogany [mə´hɔgəni] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.红木;桃花心木   (英语四级单词)
  • buoyant [´bɔiənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.能漂浮的;快活的   (英语四级单词)
  • humorous [´hju:mərəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.富于幽默的,诙谐的   (英语四级单词)
  • pathetic [pə´θetik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.可怜的;悲哀的   (英语四级单词)
  • outlook [´autluk] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.眺望;景色;展望   (英语四级单词)
  • eastward [´i:stwəd] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.&ad.向东(的)   (英语四级单词)
  • metropolis [mi´trɔpəlis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.首都;大城市   (英语四级单词)
  • aristocrat [´æristəkræt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.贵族   (英语四级单词)
  • calico [´kælikəu] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.白棉布;印花布   (英语四级单词)
  • embark [im´bɑ:k] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.上船;装载;开始   (英语四级单词)
  • unusually [ʌn´ju:ʒuəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.异常地;非常   (英语四级单词)
  • willingness [´wiliŋnis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.情愿,乐意,自愿   (英语六级单词)
  • selfishness [´selfiʃnis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.自私;不顾别人   (英语六级单词)
  • assured [ə´ʃuəd] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.确实的 n.被保险人   (英语六级单词)
  • memoir [´memwɑ:] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.回忆录;传记   (英语六级单词)
  • vagrant [´veigrənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.流浪者 a.流浪的   (英语六级单词)
  • repute [ri´pju:t] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.名誉(声) vt.称为   (英语六级单词)
  • acknowledgment [ək´nɔlidʒmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.承认;鸣谢   (英语六级单词)
  • shortcoming [´ʃɔ:t,kʌmiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.缺点,短处   (英语六级单词)
  • identity [ai´dentiti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.身份;同一性;一致   (英语六级单词)
  • landowner [´lændəunə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.土地的主人   (英语六级单词)
  • paternal [pə´tə:nl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.(象)父亲的;父方的   (英语六级单词)
  • august [ɔ:´gʌst] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.尊严的;威严的   (英语六级单词)
  • accidentally [,æksi´dentəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.偶然地   (英语六级单词)
  • robust [rəu´bʌst] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.强建的;茁壮的   (英语六级单词)
  • pursuer [pə´sju:ə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.追赶者;追求者;从事者   (英语六级单词)
  • speaking [´spi:kiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.说话 a.发言的   (英语六级单词)
  • courtship [´kɔ:tʃip] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.求爱(时期)   (英语六级单词)
  • calling [´kɔ:liŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.点名;职业;欲望   (英语六级单词)
  • priceless [´praisləs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.无价的;贵重的   (英语六级单词)
  • unprofitable [ʌn´prɔfitəbl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.没有利润的;无益的   (英语六级单词)
  • turpentine [´tə:pəntain] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.松节油 vt.涂松节油   (英语六级单词)
  • disconcert [,diskən´sə:t] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.使窘迫,使不安   (英语六级单词)

  • 上传人 欢乐鱼 分享于 2017-06-26 17:38:11
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