_The Right of Translation and Reproduction is Reserved._





Several months ago I published in the _Fortnightly Review_ a lecture,

which I had previously delivered at the Philosophical Institutions of

Edinburgh and Birmingham, and which bore the above title. The late Mr.

Darwin thought well of the epitome of his doctrine which the lecture

presented, and urged me so strongly to republish it in a form which

might admit of its being "spread broadcast over the land," that I

promised him to do so. In fulfilment of this promise, therefore--which I

now regard as more binding than ever--I reproduce the essay in the

"Nature Series" with such additions and alterations as appear to me, on

second thoughts, to be desirable. The only object of the essay is that

which is expressed in the opening paragraph.


_June 1, 1882._

Since this little Essay was published, it has been suggested to me that,

in its mode of presenting the arguments in favour of Evolution, there is

a similarity to that which has been adopted by Mr. Herbert Spencer in

the third part of his _Principles of Biology_. I should therefore like

to state, that while such similarity is no doubt in part due to the

similarity of subject-matter, I think, upon reading again, after an

interval of ten years, his admirablepresentation of the evidence it may

also in part be due to unconscious memory. This applies particularly to

the headings of the chapters, which I find to be almost identical with

those previously used by Mr. Spencer.

G. J. R.



















Although it is generally recognised that the _Origin of Species_ has

produced an effect both on the science and the philosophy of our age

which is without a parallel in the history of thought, admirers of Mr.

Darwin's genius are frequently surprised at the ignorance of his work

which is displayed by many persons who can scarcely be said to belong to

the uncultured classes. The reason of this ignorance is no doubt partly

due to the busy life which many of our bread-winners are constrained to

live; but it is also, I think, partly due to mere indolence. There are

thousands of educated persons who, on coming home from their daily work,

prefer readingliterature of a less scientificcharacter than that which

is supplied by Mr. Darwin's works; and therefore it is that such persons

feel these works to belong to a category of books which is to them a

very large one--the books, namely, which never are, but always to be,

read. Under these circumstances I have thought it desirable to supply a

short digest of the _Origin of Species_, which any man, of however busy

a life, or of however indolent a disposition, may find both time and

energy to follow.

With the general aim of the present abstract being thus understood, I

shall start at the beginning of my subject by very briefly describing

the theory of natural selection. It is a matter of observable fact that

all plants and animals are perpetually engaged in what Mr. Darwin calls

a "struggle for existence." That is to say, in every generation of every

species a great many more individuals are born than can possibly

survive; so that there is in consequence a perpetual battle for life

going on among all the constituent individuals of any given generation.

Now, in this struggle for existence, which individuals will be

victorious and live? Assuredly those which are best fitted to live: the

weakest and the least fitted to live will succumb and die, while the

strongest and the best fitted to live will be triumphant and survive.

Now it is this "survival of the fittest" that Mr. Darwin calls "natural

selection." Nature, so to speak, _selects_ the best individuals out of

each generation to live. And not only so, but as these favoured

individuals transmit their favourable qualities to their offspring,

according to the fixed laws of heredity, it follows that the

individuals composing each successivegeneration have a general tendency

to be better suited to their surroundings than were their forefathers.

And this follows, not merely because in every generation it is only the

flower of the race that is allowed to breed, but also because if in any

generation some new and beneficial qualities happen to appear as slight

variations from the ancestral type, these will be seized upon by natural

selection and added, by transmission in subsequent generations, to the

previously existing type. Thus the best idea of the whole process will

be gained by comparing it with the closely analogous process whereby

gardeners and cattlebreeders create their wonderful productions; for

just as these men, by always selecting their best individuals to breed

from, slowly but continuously improve their stock, so Nature, by a

similar process of selection, slowly but continuously makes the various

species of plants and animals better and better suited to the external

conditions of their life.

Now, if this process of continuously adapting organisms to their

environment takes place in nature at all, there is no reason why we

should set any limits on the extent to which it is able to go up to the

point at which a complete and perfect adaptation is achieved. Therefore

we might suppose that all species would attain to this condition of

perfect adjustment to their environment, and there remain fixed. And so

undoubtedly they would, if the environment were itself unchanging. But

forasmuch as the environment--or the sum total of the external

conditions of life--of almost every organic type alters more or less

from century to century (whether from astronomical, geological, and

geographical changes, or from the immigrations and emigrations of other

species living on contiguous geographical areas), it follows that the

process of natural selection need never reach a terminal phase. And

forasmuch as natural selection may thus continue, _ad infinitum_, slowly

to alter a specific type in adaptation to a gradually changing

environment, if in any case the alteration thus effected is sufficient

in amount to lead naturalists to denote the specific type by some

different name, it follows that natural selection has transmuted one

specific type into another. And so the process is supposed to go on over

all the countlessspecies of plants and animals simultaneously--the

world of organic types being thus regarded as in a state of perpetual,

though gradual, flux.

Such, then, is the theory of natural selection, or survival of the

fittest; and the first thing we have to notice with regard to it is,

that it offers to our acceptance a scientificexplanation of the

numberless cases of apparent design which we everywhere meet with in

organic nature. For all such cases of apparent design consist only in

the _adaptation_ which is shown by organisms to their environment, and

it is obvious that the facts are covered by the theory of natural

selection no less completely than they are covered by the theory of

intelligent design. Perhaps it may be answered,--"The fact that these

innumerable cases of adaptation may be accounted for by natural

selection is no proof that they are not really due to intelligent

design." And, in truth, this is an objection which is often urged by

minds--even highly cultured minds--which have not been accustomed to

scientific modes of thought. I have heard an eminent professor tell his

class that the many instances of adaptation which Mr. Darwin discovered

and described as occurring in orchids, seemed to him to tell more in

favour of contrivance than in favour of natural causes; and another

eminent professor once wrote to me that although he had read the

_Origin of Species_ with care, he could see in it no evidence of natural

selection which might not equally well be adduced in favour of

intelligent design. But here we meet with a radical misconception of the

whole logical attitude of science. For, be it observed, the exception

_in limine_ to the evidence which we are about to consider, does not

question that natural selection _may_ not be able to do all that Mr.

Darwin ascribes to it: it merely objects to his interpretation of the

facts, because it maintains that these facts might _equally well_ be

ascribed to intelligent design. And so undoubtedly they might, if we

were all childish enough to rush into a supernatural explanation

whenever a natural explanation is found sufficient to account for the

facts. Once admit the glaringly illogical principle that we may assume

the operation of higher causes where the operation of lower ones is

sufficient to explain the observed phenomena, and all our science and

all our philosophy are scattered to the winds. For the law of logic

which Sir William Hamilton called the law of parsimony--or the law which

forbids us to assume the operation of higher causes when lower ones are

found sufficient to explain the observed effects--this law constitutes

the only logicalbarrier between science and superstition. For it is

manifest that it is always possible to give a hypothetical explanation

of any phenomenon whatever, by referring it immediately to the

intelligence of some supernatural agent; so that the only difference

between the logic of science and the logic of superstition consists in

science recognising a validity in the law of parsimony which

superstition disregards. Therefore I have no hesitation in saying that

this way of looking at the evidence in favour of natural selection is

not a scientific or a reasonable way of looking at it, but a purely

superstitious way. Let us take, for instance, as an illustration, a

perfectly parallel case. When Kepler was unable to explain by any known

causes the paths described by the planets, he resorted to a supernatural

explanation, and supposed that every planet was guided in its movements

by some presiding angel. But when Newton supplied a beautifully simple

physical explanation, all persons with a scientific habit of mind at

once abandoned the metaphysical explanation. Now, to be consistent, the

above-mentioned professors, and all who think with them, ought still to

adhere to Kepler's hypothesis in preference to Newton's explanation;

for, excepting the law of parsimony, there is certainly no other logical

objection to the statement that the movements of the planets afford as

good evidence of the influence of guiding angels as they do of the

influence of gravitation.

So much, then, for the absurdly illogical position that, granting the

evidence in favour of natural selection and supernatural design to be

equal and parallel, we should hesitate for one moment in our choice.

But, of course, if the evidence is supposed _not_ to be equal and

parallel--_i.e._, if it is supposed that the theory of natural relation

is not so competent a theory to explain the facts of adaptation as is

that of intelligent design--then the objection is no longer the one that

we are considering. It is quite another objection, and one which is not

_prima facie_ absurd; it requires to be met by examining how far the

theory of natural selection _is_ able to explain the facts. Let us state

the problem clearly.

Innumerable cases of adaptation of organisms to their environment are

the observed facts for which an explanation is required. To supply this

explanation two, and only two, hypotheses are in the field. Of these

two hypotheses one is, intelligent design manifested in creation; and

the other is, natural selection manifested during the countless ages of

the past. Now it would be proof positive of intelligent design if it

could be shown that all species of plants and animals were

_created_--that is _suddenly_ introduced into the complex conditions of

their life; for it is quite inconceivable that any cause other than

intelligence could be competent to adapt an organism to its environment

_suddenly_. On the other hand, it would be proof presumptive of natural

selection if it could be shown that one species becomes slowly

transmuted into another--_i.e._, that one set of adaptations may be

gradually transformed into another set of adaptations according as

changing circumstances require. This would be proof presumptive of

natural selection, because it would then become amply probable that

natural selection might have brought about many, or most, of the cases

of adaptations which we see; and if so, the law of parsimony excludes

the rival hypothesis of intelligent design. Thus the whole question as

between natural selection and supernatural design resolves itself into

this--Were all the species of plants and animals separately created, or

were they slowly evolved? For if they were specially created, the

evidence of supernatural design remains unrefuted and irrefutable;

whereas if they were slowly evolved, that evidence has been utterly and

for ever destroyed. The doctrine of natural selectiontherefore depends

for its validity on the doctrine of organic evolution; for if once the

fact of organicevolution were established, no one would dispute that

much of the adaptation was probably effected by natural selection. _How_

much we cannot say--probably never shall be able to say; for even Mr.

Darwin himself does not doubt that other causes besides that of natural

selection have assisted in the modifying of specific types. For the

sake of simplicity, however, I shall not go into this subject; but shall

always speak of natural selection as the only cause of organic

evolution. Let us, then, weigh the evidence in favour of organic

evolution. If we find it wanting, we need have no complaints to make of

natural theologians of to-day; but if we find it to be full measure,

shaken together and running over, we ought to maintain that natural

theologians can no longer adhere to the arguments of such writers as

Paley, Bell, and Chalmers, without deliberately violating the only

logical principle which separates science from fetishism.

To avoid misapprehension, however, I may here add that while Mr.

Darwin's theory is thus in plain and direct contradiction to the theory

of design, or system of teleology, as presented by the school of writers

which I have named, I hold that Mr. Darwin's theory has no point of

logical contact with the theory of design in the larger sense, that

behind all secondary causes of a physical kind, there is a primary cause

of a mental kind. Therefore throughout this essay I refer to design in

the sense understood by the narrower forms of teleology, or as an

_immediate_ cause of the observed phenomena. Whether or not there is an

_ultimate_ cause of a psychical kind pervading all nature, a _causa

causarum_ which is the final _raison d'etre_ of the cosmos, this is

another question which, as I have said, I take to present no point of

  • scientific [,saiən´tifik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.科学(上)的   (初中英语单词)
  • doctrine [´dɔktrin] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.教义;主义;学说   (初中英语单词)
  • strongly [´strɔŋli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.强烈地;强有力地   (初中英语单词)
  • desirable [di´zaiərəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.向往的;极好的   (初中英语单词)
  • opening [´əupəniŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.开放;开端 a.开始的   (初中英语单词)
  • therefore [´ðeəfɔ:] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.&conj.因此;所以   (初中英语单词)
  • reading [´ri:diŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.(阅)读;朗读;读物   (初中英语单词)
  • argument [´ɑ:gjumənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.辩论;争论;论证   (初中英语单词)
  • structure [´strʌktʃə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.结构,构造;组织   (初中英语单词)
  • distribution [,distri´bju:ʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.分配;分布(状态)   (初中英语单词)
  • philosophy [fi´lɔsəfi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.哲学;人生观   (初中英语单词)
  • parallel [´pærəlel] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.平行的 n.平行线   (初中英语单词)
  • genius [´dʒi:niəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.天才(人物);天赋   (初中英语单词)
  • ignorance [´ignərəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.无知,愚昧   (初中英语单词)
  • partly [´pɑ:tli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.部分地;不完全地   (初中英语单词)
  • literature [´litərətʃə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.文学;文献;著作   (初中英语单词)
  • character [´kæriktə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.特性;性质;人物;字   (初中英语单词)
  • digest [di´dʒest] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.消化 n.摘要;文摘   (初中英语单词)
  • disposition [,dispə´ziʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.安排;性情;倾向   (初中英语单词)
  • beginning [bi´giniŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.开始,开端;起源   (初中英语单词)
  • briefly [´bri:fli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.简短地;简略地   (初中英语单词)
  • generation [,dʒenə´reiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.发生;世代;同龄人   (初中英语单词)
  • consequence [´kɔnsikwəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.结果;后果;推断   (初中英语单词)
  • existence [ig´zistəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.存在;生存;生活   (初中英语单词)
  • extent [ik´stent] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.长度;程度;范围   (初中英语单词)
  • attain [ə´tein] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.取得;到达;成为   (初中英语单词)
  • amount [ə´maunt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.总数;数量 v.合计   (初中英语单词)
  • supposed [sə´pəuzd] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.想象的;假定的   (初中英语单词)
  • explanation [,eksplə´neiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.解释;说明;辩解   (初中英语单词)
  • apparent [ə´pærənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.显然的;表面上的   (初中英语单词)
  • obvious [´ɔbviəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.明显的;显而易见的   (初中英语单词)
  • objection [əb´dʒekʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.反对;异议;缺点   (初中英语单词)
  • equally [´i:kwəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.相等地;平等地   (初中英语单词)
  • intelligent [in´telidʒənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.聪明的;理智的   (初中英语单词)
  • undoubtedly [ʌn´dautidli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.无疑地,确实地   (初中英语单词)
  • childish [´tʃaildiʃ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.孩子的;幼稚的   (初中英语单词)
  • account [ə´kaunt] 移动到这儿单词发声  vi.说明 vt.认为 n.帐目   (初中英语单词)
  • whatever [wɔt´evə] 移动到这儿单词发声  pron.&a.无论什么   (初中英语单词)
  • reasonable [´rizənəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.合理的;有理智的   (初中英语单词)
  • instance [´instəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.例子,实例,例证   (初中英语单词)
  • illustration [,ilə´streiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.插图,图解,例证   (初中英语单词)
  • unable [ʌn´eibəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不能的;无能为力的   (初中英语单词)
  • planet [´plænit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.行星   (初中英语单词)
  • hesitate [´heziteit] 移动到这儿单词发声  vi.犹豫,踌躇   (初中英语单词)
  • absurd [əb´sə:d] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.荒谬的,可笑的   (初中英语单词)
  • creation [kri´eiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.创作;作品;创造   (初中英语单词)
  • complex [´kɔmpleks] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.复杂的 n.综合企业   (初中英语单词)
  • probable [´prɔbəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.大概的n.很可能的事   (初中英语单词)
  • dispute [di´spju:t] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.&n.争论,辩论;争吵   (初中英语单词)
  • running [´rʌniŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.奔跑的;流动的   (初中英语单词)
  • maintain [mein´tein] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.维持;保持;继续   (初中英语单词)
  • system [´sistəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.系统,体系,制度   (初中英语单词)
  • contact [´kɔntækt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.接触;联系 v.联络   (初中英语单词)
  • secondary [´sekəndəri, -deri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.第二的;次要的   (初中英语单词)
  • physical [´fizikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.物质的;有形的   (初中英语单词)
  • primary [´praiməri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.主要的 n.居首位的   (初中英语单词)
  • mental [´mentl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.精神的;心理的   (初中英语单词)
  • translation [træns´leiʃən, trænz-] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.翻译;译文;译本   (高中英语单词)
  • previously [´pri:viəsli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.预先;以前   (高中英语单词)
  • broadcast [´brɔ:dkɑ:st] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.&n.散布 a.广播的   (高中英语单词)
  • reproduce [,ri:prə´dju:s] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.繁殖;复制;翻版   (高中英语单词)
  • admirable [´ædmərəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.极佳的,值得赞美的   (高中英语单词)
  • unconscious [ʌn´kɔnʃəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.无意识的;不觉察的   (高中英语单词)
  • identical [ai´dentikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.完全相同的   (高中英语单词)
  • classification [,klæsifi´keiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.分类(法);等级   (高中英语单词)
  • namely [´neimli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.即,也就是   (高中英语单词)
  • selection [si´lekʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.选择;选拔;精选物   (高中英语单词)
  • perpetual [pə´petʃuəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.永恒的;终身的   (高中英语单词)
  • successive [sək´sesiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.相继的;接连的   (高中英语单词)
  • subsequent [´sʌbsikwənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.其次的;其后的   (高中英语单词)
  • species [´spi:ʃi:z] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.(生物的)种,类   (高中英语单词)
  • adjustment [ə´dʒʌstmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.调整;适应;调解   (高中英语单词)
  • environment [in´vaiərənmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.郊区;周围;条件   (高中英语单词)
  • specific [spi´sifik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.具体的;特有的   (高中英语单词)
  • countless [´kauntlis] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.无数的   (高中英语单词)
  • gradual [´grædʒuəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.逐渐的   (高中英语单词)
  • acceptance [ək´septəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.接受;承认   (高中英语单词)
  • eminent [´eminənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.卓越的;杰出的   (高中英语单词)
  • radical [´rædikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.根本的;主要的   (高中英语单词)
  • interpretation [in,tə:pri´teiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.解释;翻译;表演   (高中英语单词)
  • barrier [´bæriə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.栅栏;屏障;障碍   (高中英语单词)
  • superstition [,su:pə´stiʃən, ,sju:-] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.迷信(行为)   (高中英语单词)
  • phenomenon [fi´nɔminən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.现象;奇迹;珍品   (高中英语单词)
  • hesitation [,hezi´teiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.犹豫,踌躇   (高中英语单词)
  • saying [´seiŋ, ´sei-iŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.言语;言论;格言   (高中英语单词)
  • preference [´prefərəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.优先选择;偏爱(物)   (高中英语单词)
  • competent [´kɔmpitənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.能干的,有资格的   (高中英语单词)
  • positive [´pɔzətiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.确定的   (高中英语单词)
  • organism [´ɔ:gənizəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.生物体;有机体   (高中英语单词)
  • specially [´speʃəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.专门地;特别地   (高中英语单词)
  • simplicity [sim´plisiti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.简单;朴素   (高中英语单词)
  • adhere [əd´hiə] 移动到这儿单词发声  vi.粘着;忠于;坚持   (高中英语单词)
  • deliberately [di´libərətli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.故意地;慎重地   (高中英语单词)
  • reproduction [,ri:prə´dʌkʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.繁殖;翻版;再现   (英语四级单词)
  • birmingham [´bə:miŋhəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.伯明翰   (英语四级单词)
  • binding [´baindiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.捆绑的 n.捆绑(物)   (英语四级单词)
  • evolution [,i:və´lu:ʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.进化;发展;发育   (英语四级单词)
  • presentation [,prezən´teiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.介绍;赠送;提出   (英语四级单词)
  • geographical [dʒi:ə´græfik(ə)l] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.地理(学)的   (英语四级单词)
  • abstract [´æbstrækt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.抽象的 n.提要   (英语四级单词)
  • constituent [kən´stitʃuənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.成分;要素;选民   (英语四级单词)
  • assuredly [ə´ʃuəridli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.确实地;确信地   (英语四级单词)
  • triumphant [trai´ʌmfənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.胜利的;洋洋得意的   (英语四级单词)
  • transmit [trænz´mit, træns-] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.传送;播送;发射   (英语四级单词)
  • beneficial [,beni´fiʃəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有利的,有益的   (英语四级单词)
  • ancestral [æn´sestrəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.祖先的;祖传的   (英语四级单词)
  • continuously [kən´tinjuəsli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.连续(不断)地   (英语四级单词)
  • adaptation [ædæp´teiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.适应;改写(本)   (英语四级单词)
  • organic [ɔ:´gænik] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有机体的;器官的   (英语四级单词)
  • terminal [´tə:minəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.终点(站) a.末端的   (英语四级单词)
  • alteration [,ɔ:ltə´reiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.改变,变更   (英语四级单词)
  • denote [di´nəut] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.指出;意味着   (英语四级单词)
  • contrivance [kən´traivəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.发明,设计(的才能)   (英语四级单词)
  • logical [´lɔdʒikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.逻辑(上)的   (英语四级单词)
  • newton [´nju:tn] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.牛顿   (英语四级单词)
  • beautifully [´bju:tifəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.美丽地;优美地   (英语四级单词)
  • consistent [kən´sistənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.一致的;始终如一的   (英语四级单词)
  • considering [kən´sidəriŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  prep.就…而论   (英语四级单词)
  • separately [´sepəritli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.分离地;孤独地   (英语四级单词)
  • contradiction [,kɔntrə´dikʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.矛盾;反驳;抵触   (英语四级单词)
  • philosophical [,filə´sɔfikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.哲学(上)的;冷静的   (英语六级单词)
  • fulfilment [ful´filmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.完成,成就   (英语六级单词)
  • spencer [´spensə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.(羊毛)短上衣   (英语六级单词)
  • category [´kætigəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.种类;部属;范畴   (英语六级单词)
  • heredity [hi´rediti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.遗传   (英语六级单词)
  • transmission [trænz´miʃən, træns-] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.传送;播送;发射   (英语六级单词)
  • geological [dʒiə´lɔdʒikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.地质学的   (英语六级单词)
  • phenomena [fi´nɔminə] 移动到这儿单词发声  phenomenon的复数   (英语六级单词)
  • abandoned [ə´bændənd] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.被抛弃的;无约束的   (英语六级单词)
  • wanting [´wɔntiŋ, wɑ:n-] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.短缺的;不足的   (英语六级单词)

  • 上传人 欢乐鱼 分享于 2017-06-26 17:39:23
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