By Oliver Wendell Holmes








(September, 1861.)

This is the new version of the Panem et Circenses of the Roman populace.

It is our ultimatum, as that was theirs. They must have something to

eat, and the circus-shows to look at. We must have something to eat, and

the papers to read.

Everything else we can give up. If we are rich, we can lay down our

carriages, stay away from Newport or Saratoga, and adjourn the trip

to Europe sine die. If we live in a small way, there are at least new

dresses and bonnets and every-day luxuries which we can dispense with.

If the young Zouave of the family looks smart in his new uniform,

its respectable head is content, though he himself grow seedy as a

caraway-umbel late in the season. He will cheerfully calm the perturbed

nap of his old beaver by patient brushing in place of buying a new one,

if only the Lieutenant's jaunty cap is what it should be. We all take

a pride in sharing the epidemiceconomy of the time. Only bread and the

newspaper we must have, whatever else we do without.

How this war is simplifying our mode of being! We live on our emotions,

as the sick man is said in the common speech to be nourished by his

fever. Our ordinary mental food has become distasteful, and what would

have been intellectual luxuries at other times, are now absolutely


All this change in our manner of existence implies that we have

experienced some very profound impression, which will sooner or later

betray itself in permanent effects on the minds and bodies of many among

us. We cannot forget Corvisart's observation of the frequency with which

diseases of the heart were noticed as the consequence of the terrible

emotions produced by the scenes of the great French Revolution. Laennec

tells the story of a convent, of which he was the medical director,

where all the nuns were subjected to the severest penances and schooled

in the most painful doctrines. They all became consumptive soon after

their entrance, so that, in the course of his ten years' attendance, all

the inmates died out two or three times, and were replaced by new ones.

He does not hesitate to attribute the disease from which they suffered

to those depressing moral influences to which they were subjected.

So far we have noticed little more than disturbances of the nervous

system as a consequence of the war excitement in non-combatants. Take

the first trifling example which comes to our recollection. A sad

disaster to the Federal army was told the other day in the presence

of two gentlemen and a lady. Both the gentlemen complained of a sudden

feeling at the epigastrium, or, less learnedly, the pit of the stomach,

changed color, and confessed to a slight tremor about the knees. The

lady had a "grande revolution," as French patients say,--went home, and

kept her bed for the rest of the day. Perhaps the reader may smile

at the mention of such trivial indispositions, but in more sensitive

natures death itself follows in some cases from no more serious cause.

An old, gentleman fell senseless in fatal apoplexy, on hearing of

Napoleon's return from Elba. One of our early friends, who recently

died of the same complaint, was thought to have had his attack mainly in

consequence of the excitements of the time.

We all know what the war fever is in our young men,--what a devouring

passion it becomes in those whom it assails. Patriotism is the fire

of it, no doubt, but this is fed with fuel of all sorts. The love of

adventure, the contagion of example, the fear of losing the chance of

participating in the great events of the time, the desire of personal

distinction, all help to produce those singular transformations which

we often witness, turning the most peaceful of our youth into the most

ardent of our soldiers. But something of the same fever in a different

form reaches a good many non-combatants, who have no thought of losing

a drop of precious blood belonging to themselves or their families. Some

of the symptoms we shall mention are almost universal; they are as plain

in the people we meet everywhere as the marks of an influenza, when that

is prevailing.

The first is a nervous restlessness of a very peculiar character. Men

cannot think, or write, or attend to their ordinary business. They

stroll up and down the streets, or saunter out upon the public places.

We confessed to an illustrious author that we laid down the volume

of his work which we were reading when the war broke out. It was as

interesting as a romance, but the romance of the past grew pale before

the red light of the terrible present. Meeting the same author not long

afterwards, he confessed that he had laid down his pen at the same time

that we had closed his book. He could not write about the sixteenth

century any more than we could read about it, while the nineteenth was

in the very agony and bloody sweat of its great sacrifice.

Another most eminentscholar told us in all simplicity that he had

fallen into such a state that he would read the same telegraphic

dispatches over and over again in different papers, as if they were

new, until he felt as if he were an idiot. Who did not do just the same

thing, and does not often do it still, now that the first flush of the

fever is over? Another person always goes through the side streets on

his way for the noon extra,--he is so afraid somebody will meet him and

tell the news he wishes to read, first on the bulletin-board, and then

in the great capitals and leaded type of the newspaper.

When any startling piece of war-news comes, it keeps repeating itself

in our minds in spite of all we can do. The same trains of thought go

tramping round in circle through the brain, like the supernumeraries

that make up the grand army of a stage-show. Now, if a thought goes

round through the brain a thousand times in a day, it will have worn as

deep a track as one which has passed through it once a week for twenty

years. This accounts for the ages we seem to have lived since the

twelfth of April last, and, to state it more generally, for that ex post

facto operation of a great calamity, or any very powerful impression,

which we once illustrated by the image of a stain spreading backwards

from the leaf of life open before as through all those which we have

already turned.

Blessed are those who can sleep quietly in times like these! Yet, not

wholly blessed, either; for what is more painful than the awaking from

peaceful unconsciousness to a sense that there is something wrong, we

cannot at first think what,--and then groping our way about through the

twilight of our thoughts until we come full upon the misery, which, like

some evil bird, seemed to have flown away, but which sits waiting for us

on its perch by our pillow in the gray of the morning?

The converse of this is perhaps still more painful. Many have the

feeling in their waking hours that the trouble they are aching with is,

after all, only a dream,--if they will rub their eyes briskly enough and

shake themselves, they will awake out of it, and find all their supposed

grief is unreal. This attempt to cajole ourselves out of an ugly fact

always reminds us of those unhappy flies who have been indulging in the

dangerous sweets of the paper prepared for their especial use.

Watch one of them. He does not feel quite well,--at least, he suspects

himself of indisposition. Nothing serious,--let us just rub our

fore-feet together, as the enormous creature who provides for us rubs

his hands, and all will be right. He rubs them with that peculiar

twisting movement of his, and pauses for the effect. No! all is not

quite right yet. Ah! it is our head that is not set on just as it

ought to be. Let us settle that where it should be, and then we shall

certainly be in good trim again. So he pulls his head about as an old

lady adjusts her cap, and passes his fore-paw over it like a kitten

washing herself. Poor fellow! It is not a fancy, but a fact, that he has

to deal with. If he could read the letters at the head of the sheet, he

would see they were Fly-Paper.--So with us, when, in our waking misery,

we try to think we dream! Perhaps very young persons may not understand

this; as we grow older, our waking and dreaming life run more and more

into each other.

Another symptom of our excited condition is seen in the breaking up of

old habits. The newspaper is as imperious as a Russian Ukase; it will be

had, and it will be read. To this all else must give place. If we must

go out at unusual hours to get it, we shall go, in spite of after-dinner

nap or evening somnolence. If it finds us in company, it will not stand

on ceremony, but cuts short the compliment and the story by the divine

right of its telegraphic dispatches.

War is a very old story, but it is a new one to this generation of

Americans. Our own nearest relation in the ascending line remembers the

Revolution well. How should she forget it? Did she not lose her doll,

which was left behind, when she was carried out of Boston, about that

time growing uncomfortable by reason of cannon-balls dropping in from

the neighboring heights at all hours,--in token of which see the tower

of Brattle Street Church at this very day? War in her memory means

'76. As for the brush of 1812, "we did not think much about that";

and everybody knows that the Mexican business did not concern us much,

except in its political relations. No! war is a new thing to all of us

who are not in the last quarter of their century. We are learning many

strange matters from our fresh experience. And besides, there are new

conditions of existence which make war as it is with us very different

from war as it has been.

The first and obvious difference consists in the fact that the whole

nation is now penetrated by the ramifications of a network of iron

nerves which flash sensation and volition backward and forward to and

from towns and provinces as if they were organs and limbs of a single

living body. The second is the vast system of iron muscles which, as it

were, move the limbs of the mightyorganism one upon another. What was

the railroad-force which put the Sixth Regiment in Baltimore on the 19th

of April but a contraction and extension of the arm of Massachusetts

with a clenched fist full of bayonets at the end of it?

This perpetual intercommunication, joined to the power of instantaneous

action, keeps us always alive with excitement. It is not a breathless

courier who comes back with the report from an army we have lost sight

of for a month, nor a single bulletin which tells us all we are to know

for a week of some great engagement, but almost hourly paragraphs, laden

with truth or falsehood as the case may be, making us restless always

for the last fact or rumor they are telling. And so of the movements

of our armies. To-night the stout lumbermen of Maine are encamped under

their own fragrant pines. In a score or two of hours they are among the

tobacco-fields and the slave-pens of Virginia. The war passion burned

like scattered coals of fire in the households of Revolutionary times;

now it rushes all through the land like a flame over the prairie.

And this instant diffusion of every fact and feeling produces another

singular effect in the equalizing and steadying of public opinion. We

may not be able to see a month ahead of us; but as to what has passed

a week afterwards it is as thoroughly talked out and judged as it would

have been in a whole season before our national nervoussystem was


"As the wild tempest wakes the slumbering sea,

Thou only teachest all that man can be!"

We indulged in the above apostrophe to War in a Phi Beta Kappa poem of

long ago, which we liked better before we read Mr. Cutler's beautiful

prolonged lyric delivered at the recent anniversary of that Society.

Oftentimes, in paroxysms of peace and good-will towards all mankind, we

have felt twinges of conscience about the passage,--especially when one

of our orators showed us that a ship of war costs as much to build and

keep as a college, and that every port-hole we could stop would give us

a new professor. Now we begin to think that there was some meaning in

our poor couplet. War has taught us, as nothing else could, what we can

be and are. It has exalted our manhood and our womanhood, and driven us

all back upon our substantial human qualities, for a long time more

or less kept out of sight by the spirit of commerce, the love of art,

science, or literature, or other qualities not belonging to all of us as

men and women.

It is at this very moment doing more to melt away the petty social

distinctions which keep generous souls apart from each other, than the

preaching of the Beloved Disciple himself would do. We are finding out

that not only "patriotism is eloquence," but that heroism is gentility.

All ranks are wonderfully equalized under the fire of a masked battery.

The plain artisan or the rough fireman, who faces the lead and iron like

a man, is the truest representative we can show of the heroes of

Crecy and Agincourt. And if one of our fine gentlemen puts off his

straw-colored kids and stands by the other, shoulder to shoulder, or

leads him on to the attack, he is as honorable in our eyes and in theirs

as if he were ill-dressed and his hands were soiled with labor.

Even our poor "Brahmins,"--whom a critic in ground-glass spectacles (the

same who grasps his statistics by the blade and strikes at his

supposed antagonist with the handle) oddly confounds with the "bloated

aristocracy;" whereas they are very commonly pallid, undervitalized,

shy, sensitive creatures, whose only birthright is an aptitude for

learning,--even these poor New England Brahmins of ours, subvirates

of an organizable base as they often are, count as full men, if their

courage is big enough for the uniform which hangs so loosely about their

slender figures.

A young man was drowned not very long ago in the river running under our

windows. A few days afterwards a field piece was dragged to the water's

edge, and fired many times over the river. We asked a bystander, who

looked like a fisherman, what that was for. It was to "break the gall,"

he said, and so bring the drowned person to the surface. A strange

physiological fancy and a very odd non sequitur; but that is not our

present point. A good many extraordinary objects do really come to the

surface when the great guns of war shake the waters, as when they roared

over Charleston harbor.

Treason came up, hideous, fit only to be huddled into its dishonorable

grave. But the wrecks of precious virtues, which had been covered with

the waves of prosperity, came up also. And all sorts of unexpected and

unheard-of things, which had lain unseen during our national life of

fourscore years, came up and are coming up daily, shaken from their bed

by the concussions of the artillery bellowing around us.

It is a shame to own it, but there were persons otherwise respectable

not unwilling to say that they believed the old valor of Revolutionary

times had died out from among us. They talked about our own Northern

people as the English in the last centuries used to talk about the

French,--Goldsmith's old soldier, it may be remembered, called one

Englishman good for five of them. As Napoleon spoke of the English,

again, as a nation of shopkeepers, so these persons affected to consider

the multitude of their countrymen as unwarlike artisans,--forgetting

that Paul Revere taught himself the value of liberty in working upon

gold, and Nathaniel Greene fitted himself to shape armies in the labor

of forging iron. These persons have learned better now. The bravery of

our free working-people was overlaid, but not smothered; sunken, but not

drowned. The hands which had been busy conquering the elements had only

to change their weapons and their adversaries, and they were as ready to

conquer the masses of living force opposed to them as they had been to

build towns, to dam rivers, to hunt whales, to harvest ice, to hammer

brute matter into every shape civilization can ask for.

  • volume [´vɔlju:m, ´vɑljəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.卷;书籍;体积;容量   (初中英语单词)
  • collection [kə´lekʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.收集;征收;募捐   (初中英语单词)
  • adjourn [ə´dʒə:n] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.休会;延期;移居   (初中英语单词)
  • beaver [´bi:və] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.海狸;獭皮(帽)   (初中英语单词)
  • economy [i´kɔnəmi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.经济;机制;组织   (初中英语单词)
  • whatever [wɔt´evə] 移动到这儿单词发声  pron.&a.无论什么   (初中英语单词)
  • mental [´mentl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.精神的;心理的   (初中英语单词)
  • existence [ig´zistəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.存在;生存;生活   (初中英语单词)
  • impression [im´preʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.印刷;印象;效果   (初中英语单词)
  • permanent [´pə:mənənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.永久的;不变的   (初中英语单词)
  • observation [,ɔbzə´veiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.观测;注意;意义   (初中英语单词)
  • consequence [´kɔnsikwəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.结果;后果;推断   (初中英语单词)
  • medical [´medikəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.医学的;医疗的   (初中英语单词)
  • hesitate [´heziteit] 移动到这儿单词发声  vi.犹豫,踌躇   (初中英语单词)
  • attribute [ə´tribju:t] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.象征 vt.归因于   (初中英语单词)
  • excitement [ik´saitmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.兴奋;骚动;煽动   (初中英语单词)
  • trifling [´traifliŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.微小的;轻浮的   (初中英语单词)
  • federal [´fedərəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.联邦的,联邦制的   (初中英语单词)
  • complaint [kəm´pleint] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.抱怨;叫屈   (初中英语单词)
  • mainly [´meinli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.主要地;大体上   (初中英语单词)
  • witness [´witnis] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.见证人 vt.目击   (初中英语单词)
  • peaceful [´pi:sfəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.和平的;平静的   (初中英语单词)
  • universal [,ju:ni´və:səl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.宇宙的;普遍的   (初中英语单词)
  • nervous [´nə:vəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.神经的;神经过敏的   (初中英语单词)
  • peculiar [pi´kju:liə] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.特有的;奇异的   (初中英语单词)
  • character [´kæriktə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.特性;性质;人物;字   (初中英语单词)
  • reading [´ri:diŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.(阅)读;朗读;读物   (初中英语单词)
  • romance [rəu´mæns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.中世纪骑士小说   (初中英语单词)
  • bloody [´blʌdi] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.(流)血的;血腥的   (初中英语单词)
  • scholar [´skɔlə, ´skɑ-] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.学者;奖学金获得者   (初中英语单词)
  • circle [´sə:kəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.圆圈 v.环绕;盘旋   (初中英语单词)
  • misery [´mizəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.痛苦;悲惨;穷困   (初中英语单词)
  • waiting [´weitiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.等候;伺候   (初中英语单词)
  • unhappy [ʌn´hæpi] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不幸的;不快乐的   (初中英语单词)
  • enormous [i´nɔ:məs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.巨大地,很,极   (初中英语单词)
  • movement [´mu:vmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.活动;运动;动作   (初中英语单词)
  • unusual [ʌn´ju:ʒuəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不平常的;异常的   (初中英语单词)
  • ceremony [´seriməni] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.典礼;礼仪;客气   (初中英语单词)
  • generation [,dʒenə´reiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.发生;世代;同龄人   (初中英语单词)
  • neighboring [´neibəriŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.邻近的;接壤的   (初中英语单词)
  • mexican [´meksikən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&a.墨西哥人(语)的   (初中英语单词)
  • learning [´lə:niŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.学习;学问;知识   (初中英语单词)
  • obvious [´ɔbviəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.明显的;显而易见的   (初中英语单词)
  • sensation [sen´seiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.感觉;轰动;轰动一时   (初中英语单词)
  • backward [´bækwəd] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.向后 a.向后的   (初中英语单词)
  • system [´sistəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.系统,体系,制度   (初中英语单词)
  • regiment [´redʒimənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.团;一大群   (初中英语单词)
  • engagement [in´geidʒmənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.婚约;雇用;受聘   (初中英语单词)
  • restless [´restləs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.没有休息的   (初中英语单词)
  • virginia [və´dʒinjə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.佛吉尼亚(州)   (初中英语单词)
  • passion [´pæʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.激情;激怒;恋爱   (初中英语单词)
  • instant [´instənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.立即的 n.紧迫;瞬间   (初中英语单词)
  • thoroughly [´θʌrəli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.完全地,彻底地   (初中英语单词)
  • conscience [´kɔnʃəns] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.良心;道德心   (初中英语单词)
  • driven [´driv(ə)n] 移动到这儿单词发声  drive 的过去分词   (初中英语单词)
  • commerce [´kɔmə:s] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.商业;社交;交流   (初中英语单词)
  • literature [´litərətʃə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.文学;文献;著作   (初中英语单词)
  • generous [´dʒenərəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.慷慨的;丰盛的   (初中英语单词)
  • beloved [bi´lʌvd] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.为….所爱的 n.爱人   (初中英语单词)
  • critic [´kritik] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.批评家;吹毛求疵者   (初中英语单词)
  • whereas [weər´æz] 移动到这儿单词发声  conj.鉴于;因此;而   (初中英语单词)
  • running [´rʌniŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.奔跑的;流动的   (初中英语单词)
  • fisherman [´fiʃəmən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.渔民,渔夫,打鱼人   (初中英语单词)
  • extraordinary [ik´strɔ:dinəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.非常的;额外的   (初中英语单词)
  • prosperity [prɔ´speriti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.繁荣;成功;幸运   (初中英语单词)
  • shaken [´ʃeikən] 移动到这儿单词发声  shake的过去分词   (初中英语单词)
  • otherwise [´ʌðəwaiz] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.另外 conj.否则   (初中英语单词)
  • multitude [´mʌltitju:d] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.大群(批);众多   (初中英语单词)
  • working [´wə:kiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.工人的;劳动的   (初中英语单词)
  • harvest [´hɑ:vist] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&v.收获;收割   (初中英语单词)
  • civilization [,sivilai´zeiʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.文明,文化   (初中英语单词)
  • inevitable [i´nevitəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不可避免的   (高中英语单词)
  • theirs [ðeəz] 移动到这儿单词发声  pron.他们的   (高中英语单词)
  • respectable [ri´spektəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.可敬的;有身价的   (高中英语单词)
  • cheerfully [´tʃiəfuli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.高兴地,愉快地   (高中英语单词)
  • intellectual [,inti´lektʃuəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.知识分子   (高中英语单词)
  • profound [prə´faund] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.深奥的;渊博的   (高中英语单词)
  • convent [´kɔnvənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.女修道院;女修道会   (高中英语单词)
  • painful [´peinfəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.痛(苦)的;费力的   (高中英语单词)
  • recollection [,rekə´lekʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.回忆;追想;记忆力   (高中英语单词)
  • hearing [´hiəriŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.听力;听证会;审讯   (高中英语单词)
  • singular [´siŋgjulə] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.单一的;非凡的   (高中英语单词)
  • illustrious [i´lʌstriəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.杰出的,显赫的   (高中英语单词)
  • eminent [´eminənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.卓越的;杰出的   (高中英语单词)
  • simplicity [sim´plisiti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.简单;朴素   (高中英语单词)
  • startling [´stɑ:tliŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.惊人的   (高中英语单词)
  • converse [´kɔnvə:s] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.交谈 a.相反的   (高中英语单词)
  • symptom [´simptəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.症状,症候   (高中英语单词)
  • compliment [´kɔmplimənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.敬意 vt.赞美;祝贺   (高中英语单词)
  • uncomfortable [ʌn´kʌmftəbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不舒服的,不自在的   (高中英语单词)
  • mighty [´maiti] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.强有力的 ad.很   (高中英语单词)
  • organism [´ɔ:gənizəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.生物体;有机体   (高中英语单词)
  • baltimore [´bɔ:ltimɔ:] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.巴尔的摩   (高中英语单词)
  • extension [ik´stenʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.延长;扩展;延期   (高中英语单词)
  • perpetual [pə´petʃuəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.永恒的;终身的   (高中英语单词)
  • bulletin [´bulətin] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.公报,公告,告示   (高中英语单词)
  • falsehood [´fɔ:lshud] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.错误;撒谎   (高中英语单词)
  • fragrant [´freigrənt] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.芳香的,芬芳的   (高中英语单词)
  • revolutionary [,revə´lu:ʃənəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.革命的 n.革命者   (高中英语单词)
  • tempest [´tempist] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.暴风雨   (高中英语单词)
  • manhood [´mænhud] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.人格;男子气概   (高中英语单词)
  • substantial [səb´stænʃəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.实质的,真的   (高中英语单词)
  • finding [´faindiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.发现物;判断;结果   (高中英语单词)
  • commonly [´kɔmənli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.一般地;通常   (高中英语单词)
  • sensitive [´sensitiv] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.敏感的;感光的   (高中英语单词)
  • hideous [´hidiəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.丑陋的,可怕的   (高中英语单词)
  • unexpected [ʌniks´pektid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.突然的;意外的   (高中英语单词)
  • unseen [,ʌn´si:n] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.未看见的   (高中英语单词)
  • artillery [ɑ:´tiləri] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.炮兵部队   (高中英语单词)
  • napoleon [nə´pəuljən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.拿破仑   (高中英语单词)
  • forging [´fɔ:dʒiŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.锻件;锻造(法)   (高中英语单词)
  • learned [´lə:nid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.有学问的,博学的   (高中英语单词)
  • sunken [´sʌŋkən] 移动到这儿单词发声  sink的过去分词   (高中英语单词)
  • pulpit [´pulpit] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.讲坛   (英语四级单词)
  • version [´və:ʃən, ´və:rʒən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.翻译;说明;译本   (英语四级单词)
  • dispense [di´spens] 移动到这儿单词发声  v.分配;施与;执行   (英语四级单词)
  • epidemic [,epi´demik] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&a.流行病(的)   (英语四级单词)
  • trivial [´triviəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.琐碎的;不重要的   (英语四级单词)
  • senseless [´sensləs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.无知觉的;愚蠢的   (英语四级单词)
  • calamity [kə´læmiti] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.灾害,大灾难   (英语四级单词)
  • blessed [´blesid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.享福的;神圣的   (英语四级单词)
  • briskly [´briskli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.轻快地;活泼地   (英语四级单词)
  • network [´netwə:k] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.网状物 vt.联播   (英语四级单词)
  • contraction [kən´trækʃ(ə)n] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.收缩;挛缩   (英语四级单词)
  • anniversary [,æni´və:səri] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.周年纪念(日)   (英语四级单词)
  • disciple [di´saipəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.门徒,弟子   (英语四级单词)
  • wonderfully [´wʌndəfuli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.令人惊讶地;奇妙地   (英语四级单词)
  • artisan [,ɑ:ti´zæn] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.手艺人;技工   (英语四级单词)
  • fireman [´faiəmən] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.消防队员;司炉工   (英语四级单词)
  • statistics [stə´tistiks] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.统计学;统计   (英语四级单词)
  • antagonist [æn´tægənist] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.敌手,反对者,对手   (英语四级单词)
  • loosely [´lu:sli] 移动到这儿单词发声  ad.松散地   (英语四级单词)
  • unwilling [ʌn´wiliŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.不愿意的;不情愿的   (英语四级单词)
  • bravery [´breivəri] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.勇敢,大胆,刚毅   (英语四级单词)
  • distasteful [dis´teistful] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.讨厌的;乏味的   (英语六级单词)
  • frequency [´fri:kwənsi] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.频繁;周率   (英语六级单词)
  • influenza [,influ´enzə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.流行性感冒   (英语六级单词)
  • saunter [´sɔ:ntə] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.&vi.闲逛;漫步   (英语六级单词)
  • especial [i´speʃəl] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.特别的,特殊的   (英语六级单词)
  • imperious [im´piəriəs] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.傲慢的;紧急的   (英语六级单词)
  • heroism [´herəuizəm] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.英勇;英雄主义   (英语六级单词)
  • birthright [´bə:θrait] 移动到这儿单词发声  n.生来就有的权利   (英语六级单词)
  • affected [ə´fektid] 移动到这儿单词发声  a.做作的;假装的   (英语六级单词)
  • revere [ri´viə] 移动到这儿单词发声  vt.尊敬;敬畏   (英语六级单词)

  • 上传人 欢乐鱼 分享于 2017-06-26 17:48:20
    文章信息 浏览:0 评论:  赞: